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Authors: R. Shi, Fabian Bohm, T. Van Vaerenbergh, P. Bienstman
Title: Enhancing the performance of coherent Ising machines in the large-noise regime with a fifth-order nonlinearity
Format: International Journal
Publication date: 6/2024
Journal/Conference/Book: Optics Express
Volume(Issue): 32(12) p.21681-21695
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Coherent Ising machines (CIMs), leveraging the bistable physical properties of coherent light to emulate Ising spins, exhibit great potential as hardware accelerators for tackling complex combinatorial optimization problems. Recent advances have demonstrated that the performance of CIMs can be enhanced either by incorporating large random noise or higher-order nonlinearities, yet their combined effects on CIM performance remain mainly unexplored. In this work, we develop a numerical CIM model that utilizes a tunable fifth-order polynomial nonlinear dynamic function under large noise levels, which has the potential to be implemented in all-optical platforms. We propose a normal form of a CIM model that allows for both supercritical and subcritical pitchfork bifurcation operational regimes, with fifth-order nonlinearity and tunable hyperparameters to control the Ising spin dynamics. In the benchmark studies, we simulate various sets of MaxCut problems using our fifth-order polynomial CIM model. The results show a significant performance improvement, achieving an average of 59.5% improvement in median time-to-solution (TTS) and an average of 6 times improvement in median success rate (SR) for dense Maxcut problems in the BiqMac library, compared to the commonly used third-order polynomial CIM model with low noise. The fifth-order polynomial CIM model in the large-noise regime also shows better performance trends as the problem size scales up. These findings reveal the enhancements on the computational performance of Ising machines in the large-nose regime from fifth-order nonlinearity, showing important implications for both simulation and hardware perspectives.

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