High index contrast, wavelength-scale structures are key to ultra-compact integration of photonic integrated circuits. We studied the fabrication of these nanophotonic structures in Silicon-on-insulator using CMOS processing techniques, including deep UV lithography. We conclude that this technology is capable of commercially manufacturing nanophotonic ICs. We compare the possibilities of photonic wires and photonic crystal waveguides for photonic integration. We show that, with similar fabrication techniques, photonic wires perform at least an order of magnitude better than photonic crystal waveguides with respect to propagation losses. Measurements indicate propagation losses as low as 0.24dB/mm for photonic wires, but 7.5dB/mm for photonic crystal waveguides.
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