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Authors: A.H. El-Saeed, A. Elshazly, H. Kobbi, R. Magdziak, G. Lepage, C. Marchese, J. Rahimi Vaskasi, S. Bipul, D. Bode, M.E. Filipcic, D. Velenis, M. Chakrabarti, P. De Heyn, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, F. Ferraro, Y. Ban, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, Q. Deng
Title: Low-Loss Silicon Directional Coupler with Arbitrary Coupling Ratios for Broadband Wavelength Operation Based on Bent Waveguides
Format: International Journal
Publication date: 7/2024
Journal/Conference/Book: Journal of Lightwave Technologies
DOI: 10.1109/JLT.2024.3407339
Citations: Look up on Google Scholar
Download: Download this Publication (2.2MB) (2.2MB)


We demonstrate a design for a high-performance 2x2 splitter meeting the essential requirements of broadband coupling, support for arbitrary coupling ratio, ultra low-loss, high fabrication tolerance, and a compact footprint. This is achieved based on a rigorous coupled mode theory analysis of the broadband response of the bent directional coupler (DC) and by demonstrating a full coupling model, with measured broadband values of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7. As a benchmark, we demonstrate a 0.5:0.5 splitter that significantly reduces coupling variation from 0.391 in the traditional DC to just 0.051 over an 80 nm wavelength span. This represents a remarkable 7.67 times reduction in coupling variation. Further, newly-invented low-loss bends were used in the proposed design leading to an ultra low-loss design with negligible excess loss (0.003 ± 0.013 dB). The proposed 0.5:0.5 design is tolerant and shows consistently low coupling variation over a full 300 mm wafer showcasing a maximum cross coupling variation of 0.112 over 80 nm wavelength range, at the extreme edge of the wafer. Futhermore, we augmented the wafer mapping with a waveguide width fabrication tolerance study, confirming the tolerance of the device with a mere 0.061 maximum coupling variation with a waveguide width deviation of +-20 nm over 80 nm wavelength range. These specs make the proposed splitter an attractive component for practical
applications with mass production.

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