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CAMFR: an efficient eigenmode expansion tool

Research Area: Design and Modeling for Integrated Photonics

Main Researcher: Peter Bienstman

We developped CAMFR, a comprehensive modelling tool for photonic components, which is freely available from sourceforge.

CAMFR (CAvity Modelling FRamework) is a fast, flexible, friendly full-vectorial Maxwell solver. Although it can tackle general electromagnetic problems, its main focus is on applications in the field of photonics, like

  • wavelength-scale microstructures (like photonic crystal devices)
  • lasers (like vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers)
  • light-emitting diodes (like resonant-cavity LEDs)

While other methods (like e.g. FDTD) rely on spatial discretisation and finite differences to solve Maxwell's equations, CAMFR treats the fieldas a sum of local eigenmodes in each z-invariant layer. Because this frequency-domain approach does not require spatial discretisation, CAMFR can be orders of magnitude faster than FDTD for a large class of structures.

Additionally, it can incorporate advanced boundary conditions (like e.g. PML), which can drastically improve simulation accurary and speed.
CAMFR can be used to calculate

  • the scattering matrix of a structure
  • the field inside a structure, for any given excitation
  • band diagrams of an infinite periodic structure
  • threshold material gain and resonance wavelength of laser modes
  • the response to a current source in an arbitrary cavity

This functionality is currently available for two types of geometries:

  • 2D Cartesian structures
  • 3D cylindrical symmetric structures

Calculated field profiles in an airpost VCSEL
Calculated field profiles in an airpost VCSEL

Other people involved:

Related Research Projects

PhD thesises

Publications

    International Journals

  1. P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, R. Baets, Modelling gratings on either side of the substrate for light extraction in light-emitting diodes, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 39(10-11), p.797-804 (2007)  Download this Publication (275KB).
  2. B. Maes, M. Ibanescu, J. Joannopoulos, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Microcavities based on multimodal interference, Optics Express, 15(10), p.6268-6278 (2007)  Download this Publication (3.4MB).
  3. P. Bienstman, L. Vanholme, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, P. Vandersteegen, Python in Nanophotonics Research, Computing in Science & Engineering, 9(3), p.46-47 (2007)  Download this Publication (278KB).
  4. F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, J. Cap, J. Petracek, P. Bienstman, G.R.A. Priem, B. Maes, M. Lauritano, G. Bellanca, Self-phase modulation in slow-wave structures: A comparative numerical analysis, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 38(9-11), p.761-780 (2006)  Download this Publication (498KB).
  5. P. Bienstman, S. Selleri, L. Rosa, H.P. Uranus, W.C.L. Hopman, R. Costa, A. Melloni, L.C. Andreani, J.P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, D. Pinto, S.S.A. Obayya, M. Dems, K. Panajotov, Modelling leaky photonic wires: A mode solver comparison, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 38(9-11), p.731-759 (2006)  Download this Publication (997KB).
  6. H. Wenzel, R. Guether, A. Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, P. Bienstman, A comparative study of higher order Bragg gratings: coupled-mode theory versus mode expansion, JQE, 42(1), p.64-70 (2006)  Download this Publication (216KB).
  7. P. Sanchis, J. Marti, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Semi-analytic approach for analyzing coupling issues in photonic crystal structures, APL, 87, p.203107 (2005)  Download this Publication (305KB).
  8. P. Sanchis, J. Marti, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Analysis and design of efficient coupling in photonic crystal circuits, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 37(1-3), p.133-147 (2005)  Download this Publication (517KB).
  9. D. Pissoort, B. Denecker, P. Bienstman, F. Olyslager, D. De Zutter, Comparative study of three methods for the simulation of two-dimensional photonic crystals, The Journal of Optical Society of America A (JOSA A), 21(11), p.2186-2195 (2004)  Download this Publication (479KB).
  10. P. Sanchis, J. Garcia, J. Marti, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, Experimental demonstration of high coupling efficiency between wide ridge dielectric waveguides and single-mode photonic crystal waveguides , IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 16(10), p.2272-2274 (2004)  Download this Publication (409KB).
  11. P. Sanchis, P. Bienstman, B. Luyssaert, R. Baets, J. Marti, Analysis of butt coupling in photonic crystals, JQE, 40(5), p.541-550 (2004)  Download this Publication (547KB).
  12. K.C Huang, E. Likoridis, X.Y. Jiang, J.D. Joannopoulos, K.A. Nelson, P. Bienstman, S.H. Fan, Nature of lossy Bloch states in polaritonic photonic crystals, Phys. Rev. B., 69(19), p.195111 (2004)  Download this Publication (1.4MB).
  13. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator, Optics Express (invited), 12(8), p.1583-1591 (2004)  Download this Publication (5.2MB).
  14. B. Maes, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Modeling of kerr nonlinear photonic components with mode expansion, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 36(1/3), p.15-24 (2004)  Download this Publication (396KB).
  15. P. Bienstman, Two-stage mode finder for waveguides with a 2D cross-section, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 36(1/3), p.5-14 (2004)  Download this Publication (271KB).
  16. P. Bienstman, S. Assefa, S.G. Johnson, J.D. Joannopoulos, G. Petrich, L. Kolodziejski, Taper structures for coupling into photonic crystal slab waveguides, JOSA B, 20(9), p.1817-1821 (2003)  Download this Publication (381KB).
  17. K.C. Huang, P. Bienstman, J.D. Joannopoulos, K.A. Nelson, S. Fan, Phonon-polariton excitations in photonic crystals, Physical Review B, 68, p.075209  (2003)  Download this Publication (1.9MB).
  18. K.C. Huang, P. Bienstman, J.D. Joannopoulos, K.A. Nelson, S.H. Fan, Field expulsion and reconfiguration in polaritonic photonic crystals, Physical Review Letters, 90(19), p.196402 (2003)  Download this Publication (280KB).
  19. S.G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M.A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E. Lidorikis, J.D. Joannopoulos, Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals, Physical Review E, 66(066608), (2002)  Download this Publication (476KB).
  20. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Rigorous and efficient optical VCSEL model based on vectorial eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers, IEE Proceedings - Optoelectronics, 149(4), p.161-165 (2002)  Download this Publication (392KB).
  21. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T.F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, An Out-of-Plane Grating Coupler for Efficient Butt-Coupling Between Compact Planar Waveguides and Single-Mode Fibers, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 38(7), p.949-955 (2002)  Download this Publication (612KB).
  22. J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. De Ridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J.-P. Hugonin, R.M. De La Rue, Bragg waveguide grating as a 1D photonic band gap structure: COST 268 modelling task, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 34(5/6), p.455-470 (2002)  Download this Publication (944KB).
  23. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Advanced boundary conditions for eigenmode expansion models, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 34(5/6), p.523-540 (2002)  Download this Publication (971KB).
  24. W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, D. De Zutter, Out-of-plane scattering in 1-D photonic crystal slabs, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 34(1/3), p.195-203 (2002)  Download this Publication (108KB).
  25. P. Bienstman, E. Six, M. Roelens, M. Van Wolleghem, R. Baets, Calculation of bending losses in dielectric waveguides using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 14(2), p.164-166 (2002)  Download this Publication (43KB).
  26. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, J. Vukusic , A. Larsson, M.J. Noble, M. Brunner, K. Gulden, P. Debernardi, L. Fratta, G.P. Bava, H. Wenzel, B. Klein, O. Conradi, R. Pregla, J.P.P. Seurin, S.L. Chuang, Comparison of optical VCSEL models on the simulation of oxide-confined devices, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 37(12), p.1618-1631 (2001)  Download this Publication (227KB).
  27. W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, D. De Zutter, Out-of-Plane Scattering in Photonic Crystal Slabs, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 13(6), p.565-567 (2001)  Download this Publication (113KB).
  28. P. Bienstman, H. Derudder, R. Baets, F. Olyslager, D. De Zutter, Analysis of Cylindrical Waveguide Discontinuities Using Vectorial Eigenmodes and Perfectly Matched Layers, IEEE Transactions on Microwave theory and techniques, 49(2), p.349-354 (2001)  Download this Publication (111KB).
  29. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers, Optical and Quantum Electronics, 33, p.327-341 (2001)  Download this Publication (816KB).
      International Conferences

    1. B. Maes, M. Ibanescu, M. Soljacic, J.D. Joannopoulos, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Analysis of linear and nonlinear photonic devices using eigenmode expansion, Photonics North 2007, Proceedings of SPIE (invited), 6796, Canada, p.67963B-1 (2007)  Download this Publication (951KB).
    2. S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Metal grating for coupling to photonic crystal circuits, PECS-VII, United States, p.B-48 (2007)  Download this Publication (751KB).
    3. P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, B. Maes, R. Baets, Modeling methods for high-index contrast linear and non-linear nanophotonics, NUSOD 2006 (Numerical Simulation of Optoelectronics Devices) (invited), Singapore, (2006)  Download this Publication (76KB).
    4. P. Bienstman, S. Selleri, H.P. Uranus, W.C.L. Hopman, A. Melloni, R. Costa, L.C. Andreani, P. Lalanne, J.P. Hugonin, D. Pinto, S.S.A. Obayya, Modelling lossy photonic wires: a mode solver comparison, OWTNM 05, Italy, p.5 (2006)  Download this Publication (399KB).
    5. F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, P. Bienstman, G.R.A. Priem, J. Petracek, Self-phase modulation in slow-wave structures: a comparative numerical analysis, OWTNM 06, Italy, p.27 (2006)  Download this Publication (451KB).
    6. G. Van der Sande, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, J. Danckaert, R. Baets, I. Veretennicoff, Nonlinear lattice model for self-localized waveguides in nonlinear photonic crystals, SPIE International Congress on Optics and Optoelectronics, Poland, p.5949-22 (2005).
    7. P. Bienstman, B. Maes, P. Vandersteegen, R. Baets, Modelling of non-linear nanophotonic devices, OWTNM (invited), Australia, p.32 (2005)  Download this Publication (498KB).
    8. P. Sanchis, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, J. Marti, Semi-analytic approach for coupling issues in photonic crystal structures, Workshop on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-VI), Greece, p.D.3 (2005)  Download this Publication (512KB).
    9. P. Sanchis, J. Marti, J. Garcia, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Semi-analytic analysis of complex photonic crystal structures, 13th International workshop on Optical Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modelling (OWTNM 2005), France, p.FrB1-4 (2005)  Download this Publication (740KB).
    10. P. Bienstman, Hybrid mode finder for waveguides with a 2D cross-section, PIERS 2004 (invited), Italy, p.Session 52, paper 2 (2004).
    11. B. Maes, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Modeling second harmonic generation with mode expansion, OWTNM04, Belgium, p.36 (2004).
    12. P. Sanchis, J. Marti, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Analysis and design of efficient coupling into photonic crystal circuits, OWTNM04, Belgium, p.27 (2004).
    13. P. Sanchis, J. Marti, P. Bienstman, B. Luyssaert, R. Baets, Analytic expressions for transmission and reflection from semi-infinite photonic crystal waveguides, Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-V), Tu-P31, Japan, (2004).
    14. S. Johnson, M. Povinelli, P. Bienstman, M. Skorobogatiy, M. Soljacic, M. Ibanescu, E. Likoridis, J. Joannopoulos, Coupling, scattering and perturbation theory: semi-analytical analyses of photonic crystal waveguides, ICTON 2003, Poland, p.103-109 (2003)  Download this Publication (410KB).
    15. R. Baets, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, Coupling issues in strongly confined nanophotonic waveguides, ICTON 2003 (invited), Poland, p.191-192 (2003)  Download this Publication (152KB).
    16. B. Maes, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Rigorous modelling of non-linear photonic components with mode expansion and spatial index discretisation, IPR, United States, p.105-107 (2003).
    17. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Eigenmode Expansion using perfectly matched layers, Integrated Photonics Research (invited), United States, p.134-136 (2003).
    18. S. Assefa, P. Bienstman, P. Rakich, S. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, G. Petrich, L. Kolodziejski, E. Ippen, Coupling into photonic crystal waveguides , CLEO/QELS, United States, p.150 (2003).
    19. B. Maes, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Rigorous modelling of non-linear wavelength-scale structures with mode expansion and spatial index discretisation, OWTNM 2003 (Optical Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modelling), 11, Czech Republic, p.98 (2003).
    20. W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Out-of-plane scattering at sidewall roughness in photonic crystal slabs, 2002 IEEE/LEOS Benelux Annual Symposium , Netherlands, p.79-82 (2002)  Download this Publication (268KB).
    21. P. Bienstman, L. Vanholme, R. Baets, Eigenmode Modeling of Photonic Crystal Devices, 2002 IEEE/LEOS Benelux Annual Symposium , Netherlands, p.5-8 (2002)  Download this Publication (160KB).
    22. B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, 2D simulations of various compact spot-size converters, 2002 IEEE/LEOS Benelux Annual Symposium, Netherlands, p.203-206 (2002).
    23. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Out-of-plane fiber coupler for coupling to high-index-contrast waveguides, PECS-IV, United States, p.155 (2002)  Download this Publication (114KB).
    24. K.C. Huang, P. Bienstman, J.D. Joannopoulos, K.A. Nelson, S. Fan, Excited by the sound of photonic crystals: Phonon-polariton excitations in photonic crystals, PECS-IV, United States, p.88 (2002).
    25. R. Baets, Managing out-of-plane coupling 2D crystals, Workshop and EOS Topical meeting -Two Dimensional Photonic Crystals (invited), Switzerland, (2002).
    26. B. Maes, Modelling of non-linear effects in a mode expansion context, Workshop 2D photonic crystals, Switzerland, p.I-05 (2002).
    27. P. Bienstman, Efficient modelling methods for photonic crystal devices, European workshop on two-dimensional photonic crystals (invited), Switzerland, (2002).
    28. P. Bienstman, Efficient modelling of photonic crystal structures based on vectorial eigenmode expansion, Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) 2002 (invited), United States, (2002).
    29. R. Baets, Towards nanophotonic integrated circuits: the challenges, Conference on Optoelectronics and Optical Communications (COOC 2002) (invited), 9(1), p.3-4 (2002).
    30. F.W.J. Fransoo, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Photonic IC for optical detection with sub wavelength resolution , IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.205-208 (2001)  Download this Publication (118KB).
    31. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T.F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, R. Baets, An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibres, IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.17-20 (2001).
    32. B. Luyssaert, D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Compact mode converters for PICs, 6th Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.205-208 (2001).
    33. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T.F. Krauss, I. Moerman, P. Van Daele, R. Baets, A high-efficiency out-of-plane fibre coupler for coupling to high index contrast waveguides, ECOC 01, Netherlands, p.30-31 (2001)  Download this Publication (176KB).
    34. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. De Zutter, R. Baets, Design of an out-of-plane coupler for efficient butt-coupling from photonic crystal waveguides to single-mode fibres, PECS III, United Kingdom, (2001).
    35. W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, Out-of-plane scattering in photonic crystal slabs, Conference Proceedings of LEOS, Costa Rica, p.PD1.5 (2000)  Download this Publication (32KB).
    36. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, VCSEL modelling based on vectorial eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layer boundary conditions, Meeting of the COST 268 and European workshop on VCSELs : From physics to applications (Workshop), Belgium, (2000).
    37. P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Waveguide and resonator modeling based on vectorial eigenmode expension and perfectly matched layer boundery conditions, Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium - PIERS 2000, United States, p.175 (2000).

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