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ERC-CoG: PhotonicSWARM

Full Name: Photonic Integrated Circuits using Scattered Waveguide elements in an Adaptive, Reconfigurable Mesh.

Duration: 1/4/2017-31/3/2022


  • Scale Silicon Photonic Circuits to tens of thousands of components that can be tuned or configured to a specific application
  • Research new photonic circuit topologies where light is distributed over multiple pathways.
  • Develop generic reconfigurable circuits (programmable photonics) that can perform different functions.
  • Implement control algorithms based on natural processes (e.g. swarms) that can scale with larger photonic circuits.

People involved

Research topics involved

Publications in the framework of this project (38)

    International Journals

  1. W. Bogaerts, D. Perez, J. Capmany, D.A.B. Miller, J. Poon, D. Englund, F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, Programmable Photonic Circuits, Nature (invited), 586(7828), p.207-216 doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2764-0 (2020).
  2. X. Chen, P. Stroobant, M. Pickavet, W. Bogaerts, Graph Representations for Programmable Photonic Circuits, IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, 38(15), p.4009-4018 doi:10.1109/JLT.2020.2984990 (2020)  Download this Publication (3.6MB).
  3. W. Bogaerts, A. Rahim, Programmable Photonics: An Opportunity for an Accessible Large-Volume PIC Ecosystem, IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (invited), 26(5), p.8302517 doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2020.2982980 (2020)  Download this Publication (4.5MB).
  4. A. Ribeiro, S. Declercq, U. Khan, M. Wang, L. Van Iseghem, W. Bogaerts, Column-row addressing of thermo-optic phase shifters for controlling large silicon photonic circuits, IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 26(5), p.6100708 (8 pages) doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2020.2975669 (2020)  Download this Publication (3.3MB).
  5. M. Wang, A. Ribeiro, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Tolerant, Broadband Tunable 2x2 Coupler Circuit, Optics Express, 28(4), p.5555-5566 doi:10.1364/OE.384018 (2020)  Download this Publication (3MB).
  6. I. Zand, W. Bogaerts, Effects of Coupling and Phase Imperfections in Programmable Photonic Hexagonal Waveguide Meshes, Photonics Research, 8(2), p.211-218 doi:10.1364/PRJ.376227 (2020)  Download this Publication (2.1MB).
  7. A. Li, W. Bogaerts, Reconfigurable nonlinear nonreciprocal transmission in a silicon photonic integrated circuit, Optica, 7(1), p.7-14 doi:10.1364/OPTICA.7.000007 (2020)  Download this Publication (3.4MB).
  8. H. Deng, W. Bogaerts, Pure phase modulation based on a silicon plasma dispersion modulator, Optics Express, 27(19), p.27191-27201 doi:10.1364/OE.27.027191 (2019)  Download this Publication (8.3MB).
  9. A. Li, W. Bogaerts, Using backscattering and backcoupling in silicon ring resonators as a new degree of design freedom, Lasers & Photonics Reviews, p.1800244 (18 pages) doi:10.1002/lpor.201800244 (2019)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
  10. A. Li, W. Bogaerts, Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in integrated silicon photonics circuit, Optics Express, 25(25), p.31688-31695 doi:10.1364/OE.25.031688 (2017)  Download this Publication (2.6MB).
  11. A. Ribeiro, W. Bogaerts, Digitally controlled multiplexed silicon photonics phase shifter using heaters with integrated diodes, Optics Express, 25, doi:10.1364/OE.25.029778 (2017)  Download this Publication (4.1MB).
      International Conferences

    1. W. Bogaerts, Programmable Photonic Circuits for Linear Processing, Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE2021), p.11.2.2 (2021).
    2. W. Bogaerts, X. Chen, I. Zand, M. Wang, H. Deng, L. Van Iseghem, A. Rahim, U. Khan, Tutorial: Programmable Integrated Photonics, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) (invited), p.paper Tu4B-1 (3 pages) doi:10.1109/ECOC48923.2020.9333192 (2020)  Download this Publication (611KB).
    3. W. Bogaerts, X. Chen, M. Wang, I. Zand, H. Deng, L. Van Iseghem, A. Ribeiro, A. Diaz Tormo , U. Khan, Programmable Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuits, IEEE Photonics Conference (IPC) (invited), Canada, p.ThD2.1 doi:10.1109/IPC47351.2020.9252475 (2020)  Download this Publication (2.4MB).
    4. W. Bogaerts, A. Rahim, X. Chen, L. Van Iseghem, H. Deng, M. Wang, I. Zand, A. Ribeiro, A. Diaz Tormo , U. Khan, Programmable Photonic Circuits: a flexible way of manipulating light on chips, Frontiers in Optics (invited), United States, doi:10.1364/FIO.2020.FTh1C.1 (2020)  Download this Publication (1.7MB).
    5. W. Bogaerts, Programmable Photonic Circuits, IC Industry Development Summit Forum (invited), China, (2020)  Download this Publication (237KB).
    6. W. Bogaerts, P. Edinger, A.Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Chen, H. Sattari, P. Verheyen, M. Jezzini, G. Talli, S. Kumar, M. Garcia-Porcel, A. Ribeiro, G. Jo, N. Quack, K. Gylfason, F. Niklaus, U. Khan, Building Large-Scale Programmable Photonic Circuits Using Silicon Photonics MEMS, OSA Advanced Photonics Congress - Photonics in Switching and Computing (invited), Canada, p.PsTh1F.1 doi:10.1364/PSC.2020.PsTh1F.1 (2020)  Download this Publication (663KB).
    7. I. Zand, X. Chen, W. Bogaerts, Application-specific Scaling in Programmable Photonic Circuits, European Conference on Integrated Optics, United States, p.10.3 (2020)  Download this Publication (1.6MB).
    8. L. Van Iseghem, U. Khan, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, K.B. Gylfason, N. Quack, J. Beeckman, W. Bogaerts, Liquid crystal phase shifter integrated in a silicon photonics platform, European Conference on Integrated Optics, p.1.3 (2020)  Download this Publication (1.8MB).
    9. W. Bogaerts, A. Ribeiro, M. Wang, L. Van Iseghem, H. Deng, I. Zand, X. Chen, U. Khan, Technologies for large-scale programmable photonic circuits, AOS Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT) and Australian Conference on Optics, Lasers, and Spectroscopy (ACOLS) 2019 (invited), p.11200-55 (2019).
    10. X. Chen, W. Bogaerts, Building Graph-based Programming Strategies for Reconfigurable Photonic Circuits, Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, Netherlands, p.1-4 (2019).
    11. I. Zand, B. Abasahl, W. Bogaerts, Intensity Spread Analysis of Programmable Photonic Circuits with Parasitics, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals, United States, p.paper TuE2.2 doi:10.1109/PHOSST.2019.8794953 (2019)  Download this Publication (646KB).
    12. I. Zand, W. Bogaerts, Discretization Effects of Digital Control of Thermally Tunable 2x2 MZI Couplers, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals, United States, p.paper TuE2.2 (2 pages) doi:10.1109/PHOSST.2019.8794890 (2019)  Download this Publication (398KB).
    13. M. Wang, A. Ribeiro, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Tolerant, Broadband Tunable 2x2 Coupler Circuit, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals, United States, p.paper WE3.3 (2 pages) doi: 10.1109/PHOSST.2019.8794978 (2019)  Download this Publication (2.2MB).
    14. W. Bogaerts, D.A.B. Miller, J. Capmany, The New World of Programmable Photonics, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals (invited), United States, p.ME1.1 doi:10.1109/PHOSST.2019.8795032 (2019)  Download this Publication (3.6MB).
    15. X. Chen, W. Bogaerts, A Graph-based Design and Programming Strategy for Reconfigurable Photonic Circuits, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series (SUM) , United States, p.paper ME2.2 (2 pages) doi:10.1109/PHOSST.2019.8795068 (2019)  Download this Publication (1.6MB).
    16. A. Ribeiro, U. Khan, L. Van Iseghem, M. Wang, S. Declercq, W. Bogaerts, Driving and control techniques for large scale programmable photonics circuits, PhotonIcs & Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) (invited), Italy, p.2568 (2019)  Download this Publication (860KB).
    17. H. Deng, W. Bogaerts, Configurable Modulator for Pure Phase Modulation, Photonics North, Canada, p. PS-87  doi:10.1109/PN.2019.8819529 (2019)  Download this Publication (75KB).
    18. B. Abasahl, W. Bogaerts, Evaluation of Stability of Silicon-Photonics-Based Optical Switch Network Architectures against Parasitic Errors in Switch Elements, 21st European Conference on Integratred Optics (ECIO 2019), Belgium, p.Po1.1 (2019)  Download this Publication (925KB).
    19. U. Khan, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Designing large-scale photonic integrated circuits, OPTICS 2019 (invited), Italy, p.F.IV.1 (2019).
    20. I. Zand, B. Abasahl, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Controlling parasitics in linear optical processors, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.152-155 (2018)  Download this Publication (894KB).
    21. L. Van Iseghem, U. Khan, J. Beeckman, W. Bogaerts, On-chip beam shaping using lateral leakage, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.136-139 (2018)  Download this Publication (711KB).
    22. W. Bogaerts, Large-scale Programmable Silicon Photonics, European Conference on Integrated Optics (invited), 2018, Spain, p.We.3.A.1 (2018)  Download this Publication (318KB).
    23. A. Ribeiro, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Matrix Addressing Silicon Photonics Phase Shifters using Heaters with Integrated Diodes, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, Spain, p.We.3.A.5. (2018)  Download this Publication (250KB).
    24. W. Bogaerts, Programmable photonic ICs: making optical devices more versatile, PIC International Conference (invited), Belgium, (2018)  Download this Publication (6.6MB).
    25. A. Ribeiro, W. Bogaerts, Thermo-optical Phase Shifter with Integrated Diodes for Multiplexed Control, The Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), United States, p.Th32.A.4 doi:10.1364/ofc.2018.th2a.4 (2018)  Download this Publication (3.8MB).
        National Conferences

      1. Mi Wang , Antonio Ribeiro, Yufei Xing, Wim Bogearts, Analysis of phase compensation method for the tunable coupler, accepted for publication in IEEE Photonics Scociety Benelux Annual Symposium,Netherlands,  (to be published).