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Variability Aware Design

Research Area: Design and Modeling for Integrated Photonics, Large-scale Photonic Integration, Silicon Photonics Process Technology

Main Researcher: Yufei Xing

What is the problem with variability in photonics?

- large sensitivity
- different contributions to variability (processing, temperatures)
- different scales (die, wafer, batch)

Many components will all have slight deviations, which will impact the performance and yield of the entire circuit

Variability of individual components will impact the yield of the circuit
Variability of individual components will impact the yield of the circuit

Approach:

- Monte Carlo
- Smarter models based on Stochastic CollocationSC or PCE

PDF and CDF of the coupling coefficient for wavelength at 1.55 μm obtained by means of the SC model and MC model, respectively.
PDF and CDF of the coupling coefficient for wavelength at 1.55 μm obtained by means of the SC model and MC model, respectively.

An example:

A Directional Coupler has its waveguide width and thickness varied by a random distribution. It field coupling coefficient is a random variable. SC saves computation cost drastically by replacing the simulation model (Fimmwave Modesolver) with a cheap stochastic model (analytical expression).

Comparison of performance and time consumption of the SC with the MC method.
Comparison of performance and time consumption of the SC with the MC method.

Other people involved:

Related Research Projects

PhD thesises

Publications

    International Journals

  1. D. Brunner, A. Marandi, W. Bogaerts, A. Ozcan, Editorial: Photonics for computing and computing for photonics, Nanophotonics (invited), 9(13), p.4053-4054 doi:10.1515/nanoph-2020-0470 (2020)  Download this Publication (136KB).
  2. Y. Xing, J. Dong, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Correlation between Pattern Density and Linewidth Variation in Silicon Photonics Waveguides, Optics Express, 28(6), p.7961-7968 doi:10.1364/OE.388149 (2020)  Download this Publication (2.2MB).
  3. M. Wang, A. Ribeiro, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Tolerant, Broadband Tunable 2x2 Coupler Circuit, Optics Express, 28(4), p.5555-5566 doi:10.1364/OE.384018 (2020)  Download this Publication (3MB).
  4. Y. Xing, M. Wang, A. Ruocco, J. Geessels, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, A Compact Silicon Photonics Circuit to Extract Multiple Parameters for Process Control Monitoring, OSA Continuum, 3(2), p.379-390 doi:10.1364/OSAC.383711 (2020)  Download this Publication (1.3MB).
  5. W. Bogaerts, Y. Xing, U. Khan, Layout-Aware Variability Analysis, Yield Prediction and Optimization in Silicon Photonic Circuits, IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 25(5), p.paper 6100413 doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2019.2906271 (2019)  Download this Publication (8.1MB).
  6. U. Khan, Y. Xing, Y. Ye, W. Bogaerts, Photonic integrated circuits design in a foundry+fabless ecosystem, Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (invited), 25(5), p.paper 8201014 doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2019.2918949 (2019)  Download this Publication (3.6MB).
  7. Y. Xing, J. Dong, S. Dwivedi, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Accurate Extraction of Fabricated Geometry Using Optical Measurement, Photonics Research, 6 (11), p.1008-1020 doi:10.1364/PRJ.6.001008 (2018)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
  8. W. Bogaerts, L. Chrostowski, Silicon Photonics Circuit Design: Methods, Tools and Challenges, Lasers & Photonics Reviews (invited), 12(4), p.1700237 (29 pages) doi:10.1002/lpor.201700237 (2018)  Download this Publication (2.8MB).
  9. A. Kaintura, D. Spina, I. Couckuyt, L.Knockaert, W. Bogaerts, T. Dhaene, A Kriging and Stochastic Collocation ensemble for uncertainty quantification in engineering applications, Engineering with Computers, p.1-15 doi:10.1007/s00366-017-0507-0 (2017)  Download this Publication (2.5MB).
  10. A. Li, W. Bogaerts, Fundamental Suppression of Backscattering in Silicon Microrings, Optics Express, 25(3), p.2092-2099 doi:10.1364/OE.25.002092 (2017)  Download this Publication (2.5MB).
  11. Y. Xing, D. Spina, A. Li, T. Dhaene, W. Bogaerts, Stochastic Collocation for Device-level Variability Analysis in Integrated Photonics, Photonics Research, doi:10.1364/PRJ.4.000093 (2016)  Download this Publication (782KB).
  12. W. Bogaerts, M. Fiers, P. Dumon, Design Challenges in Silicon Photonics, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., 20(4), p.1-8 doi:10.1109/JSTQE.2013.2295882 (2014)  Download this Publication (363KB).
  13. M. Fiers, E. Lambert, S. Pathak, P. Dumon, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, Improving the design cycle for nanophotonic components, Journal of Computational Science, 4(5), p.313-324 doi:10.1016/j.jocs.2013.05.008 (2013)  Download this Publication (2.9MB).
      International Conferences

    1. U. Khan, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Parameter extraction, variability analysis and yield prediction of the photonic integrated circuits., Advanced Photonics Congress (invited), United States, p.paper IM3A.2 (2019)  Download this Publication (780KB).
    2. M. Wang, A. Ribeiro, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Tolerant, Broadband Tunable 2x2 Coupler Circuit, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals, United States, p.paper WE3.3 (2 pages) doi: 10.1109/PHOSST.2019.8794978 (2019)  Download this Publication (2.2MB).
    3. W. Bogaerts, Y. Xing, Y. Ye, U. Khan, J. Dong, J. Geessels, M. Fiers, D. Spina, T. Dhaene, Predicting Yield of Photonic Circuits With Wafer-scale Fabrication Variability, 2019 IEEE MTT-S International Conference on Numerical Electromagnetic and Multiphysics Modeling and Optimization (NEMO) (invited), United States, p.1-3 doi:10.1109/NEMO.2019.8853660 (2019)  Download this Publication (1MB).
    4. Y. Xing, M. Wang, A. Ruocco, J. Geessels, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Extracting Multiple Parameters from a Compact Circuit for Performance Evaluation, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO 2019), Belgium, p.W.Po1.9 (2019)  Download this Publication (1.8MB).
    5. U. Khan, Y. Xing, A. Ribeiro, W. Bogaerts, Extracting Coupling Coefficients of Directional Couplers, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO 2019), Belgium, p.W.Po.1.8 (2019)  Download this Publication (1MB).
    6. U. Khan, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Designing large-scale photonic integrated circuits, OPTICS 2019 (invited), Italy, p.F.IV.1 (2019).
    7. R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, Hands-on: Introduction to Silicon Photonics Circuit Design, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (invited), SC454, United States, (2019).
    8. U. Khan, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, Effect of fabrication imperfections on the performance of silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide gratings, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.7-10 (2018)  Download this Publication (818KB).
    9. Y. Xing, J. Dong, U. Khan, Y. Ye, D. Spina, T. Dhaene, W. Bogaerts, From Parameter Extraction, Variability Models to Yield_Prediction, Latin America Optics & Photonics Conference (invited), Peru, p.paper W3E.1 (3 pages) doi:10.1364/LAOP.2018.W3E.1 (2018)  Download this Publication (1.5MB).
    10. W. Bogaerts, U. Khan, Y. Xing, Layout-Aware Yield Prediction of Photonic Circuits, IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Mexico, p.p93-93 (WD5) doi:10.1109/GROUP4.2018.8478734 (2018)  Download this Publication (2.7MB).
    11. Y. Xing, J. Dong, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, Hierarchical Model for Spatial Variations of Integrated Photonics, IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, Mexico, p.91-92 (WD4) doi:10.1109/GROUP4.2018.8478733 (2018)  Download this Publication (4.4MB).
    12. W. Bogaerts, Hands-on: Introduction to Silicon Photonics Circuit Design, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (invited), SC454, United States, (2018)  Download this Publication (14.3MB).
    13. Y. Xing, U. Khan, Y. Ye, W. Bogaerts, Extracting Fabricated Geometry on Die-Level, 2017 IEEE Photonics Scociety Benelux Annual Symposium, Netherlands, p.148-151 (2017)  Download this Publication (381KB).
    14. W. Bogaerts, Scaling Up Silicon Photonic Circuits: Where Are the Challenges?, International Workshop on Optical/Photonic Interconnects for Computing Systems (OPTICS Workshop) (invited), 3, Switzerland, (2017)  Download this Publication (275KB).
    15. W. Bogaerts, Challenges for Designing Large-scale Integrated Photonics, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) / Workshop on Optical Waveguide Theory an Numerical Modeling (OWTNM) (invited), Poland, p.OWTNM-I-01 (2016)  Download this Publication (268KB).
    16. Y. Xing, D. Spina, A. Li, T. Dhaene, W. Bogaerts, Variability analysis of device-level photonics using stochastic collocation , SPIE Photonics Europe 2016, Belgium, doi:10.1117/12.2224037 (2016)  Download this Publication (112KB).
    17. W. Bogaerts, Silicon Photonics: Designing for Complexity, HiPEAC Computing Systems Week (invited), Italy, (2015).

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