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mid-infrared silicon-based waveguide circuit technology

Research Area: Mid IR silicon photonics , Silicon photonics for lab-on-chip spectroscopy

Main Researcher: Aditya Malik

Identification of a suitable waveguide platform is essential for building a complete mid-ir lab-on-a-chip system. For telecom wavelengths, silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is the established waveguide platform because of mass manufacturing possibilities in CMOS pilot lines. The transparancy window of SOI waveguides is limited to 4 Ám because the underlying oxide absorbs the longer wavelengths heavily. Low loss waveguides and spectrometers based on arrayed waveguide gratings and planar concave gratings have been demonstrated at 3.8 Ám on SOI waveguides with 400 nm Si thickness.

Beyond 4 Ám, several candidates like free standing Si, Si on Sapphire, Si on SiN and Ge-on-Si have been proposed in recent literature as alternatives for SOI. The major requirements for a waveguide platform for the mid-ir are (a) transparency in the wide mid-ir (b) straightforward fabrication scheme and (c) CMOS compatibility which will allow mass manufacturing. Ge-on-Si waveguides have a wide transparency range from 1.7 Ám ľ 8 Ám, can be fabricated very easily as shown below and are completely CMOS compatible. Low loss waveguides and several photonic components like MZIs, AWGs, PCGs have been demonstrated on this waveguide platform.

Other people involved:

PhD thesises


    International Journals

  1. M. Muneeb, A. Vasiliev, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. S. Penades, L. Cerutti, J.B. Rodriguez, G. Mashanovich, M. Smit, E. Tournie, G. Roelkens, III-V-on-silicon integrated micro-spectrometer for the 3 um wavelength range, Optics Express, 24(9), p.9465-9472 (2016).
  2. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Radosavljevic, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Penades, G. Mashanovich, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, P. Verheyen, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R Loo, J. Van Campenhout, G. Roelkens, Silicon-based photonic integrated circuits for the mid-infrared, Procedia Engineering (invited), 140, p.144-151 (2016)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
  3. R. Wang, Stephan Sprengel, M. Muneeb, Gerhard Boehm, R. Baets, Markus-Christian Amann, G. Roelkens, 2 μm wavelength range InP-based type-II quantum well photodiodes heterogeneously integrated on silicon photonic integrated circuits, Optics Express, 23(20), United States, p.26834-26841 (2015)  Download this Publication (1.7MB).
  4. A. Subramanian, E.M.P. Ryckeboer, A. Dhakal, F. Peyskens, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, H. Zhao, S. Pathak, A. Ruocco, A. De Groote, P.C. Wuytens, D. Martens, F. Leo, W. Xie, U.D. Dave, M. Muneeb, Pol Van Dorpe, Joris Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, N. Le Thomas, D. Van Thourhout, Zeger Hens, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, Silicon and silicon nitride photonic circuits for spectroscopic sensing on-a-chip , Photonics Research (invited), 5(3), p.B47 (2015)  Download this Publication (1.5MB).
  5. A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, G. Roelkens, Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared, Optics Express, 22(23), p.28479-28488 (2014)  Download this Publication (5.3MB).
  6. M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, S. Pathak, E.M.P. Ryckeboer, D. Sanchez, L. Cerutti, J.B. Rodriguez, E. Tournie, W. Bogaerts, M. Smit, G. Roelkens, Silicon-on-insulator shortwave infrared wavelength meter with integrated photodiodes for on-chip laser monitoring, Optics Express, 22(22), p.27300-27308 (2014)  Download this Publication (4MB).
  7. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y.Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R.Loo, G. Roelkens, Germanium-on-Silicon Planar Concave Grating Wavelength (de)multiplexers in the Mid-Infrared, Applied Physics Letters, 103(16), p.161119 (2013)  Download this Publication (1.3MB).
  8. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y.Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R.Loo, G. Roelkens, Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-infrared Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexers, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 25(18), p.1805-1808 (2013)  Download this Publication (2MB).
  9. M. Muneeb, X. Chen, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, S. Pathak, E.M.P. Ryckeboer, A. Malik, B. Kuyken, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Van Campenhout, G. Mashanovich, G. Roelkens, Demonstration of silicon on insulator mid-infrared spectrometers operating at 3.8um, Optics Express, 21(10), p.11659-11669 (2013)  Download this Publication (2.1MB).
      International Conferences

    1. A. Vasiliev, M. Muneeb, A. Ruocco, A. Malik, H. Chen, M. Nedeljkovic, J. Soler-Penades, L. Cerutti, J. B. Rodriguez, G. Z. Mashanovich, M. K. Smit, E. TourniÚ, G. Roelkens, 3.8 μm Heterogeneously Integrated III-V on Silicon Micro-Spectrometer, 18th European Conference in Integrated Optics 2016 (ECIO), Poland, p.paper ECIO/p-24 (2016)  Download this Publication (309KB).
    2. R. Wang, M. Muneeb, Stephan Sprengel, Gerhard Boehm, R. Baets, Markus-Christian Amann, G. Roelkens, SWIR InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well photodetectors and spectrometers integrated on SOI, SPIE Photonics West 2016, United States, (2016)  Download this Publication (554KB).
    3. J.S.Penades, Y.Hu, M.Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Z. Khokhar, A. Malik, G. Roelkens, F. Y. Gardes, G. Z. Mashanovich, Angled MMI CWDM structure on Germanium on Silicon, 2015 Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO Europe), Germany, p.paper CK-7.2 TUE (2015)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
    4. Z. Wang, A. Malik, B. Tian, M. Muneeb, Clement Merckling, Marianna Pantouvaki, Yosuke Shimura, Roger Loo, Joris Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, Near/Mid-Infrared Heterogeneous Si Photonics, The 9th International Conference On Silicon Epitaxy And Heterostructures (invited), (2015)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
    5. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y.Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R.Loo, G. Roelkens, Germanium-on-Silicon Mid-Infrared Photonic Integrated Circuits, Proceedings of the 18th Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Society Belenux Chapter, p.21-24 (2013).
    6. A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Yosuke Shimura, Joris Van Campenhout, R.Loo, G. Roelkens, Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers, IEEE Photonics Conference 2013 (IPC), United States, p.paper MF 1.4 (2013)  Download this Publication (663KB).

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