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MEMS and NEMS optical actuators in SOI

Research Area: Large-scale Photonic Integration, Silicon Photonics Process Technology

Main Researcher: Wim Bogaerts

Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) is not only a good material for integrated optics, but also for MEMS and NEMS (micro and nano-electromechanical systems). By physically moving waveguides, the optical phase and coupling can be adjusted.

This can be used for actuators, such as phase shifters and tunable couplers, but also for opto-mechanical transducers in sensing.

This can use both out-of-plane or in-plane movement, with out without electrical actuation.



Other people involved:

Related Research Projects

PhD thesises

Publications

    International Journals

  1. H. Sattari, A.Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, P. Verheyen, K.B Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, Silicon photonic microelectromechanical systems add-drop ring resonator in a foundry process, Journal of Optical Microsystems, 2(4), p.044001 doi:10.1117/1.JOM.2.4.044001 (2022)  Download this Publication (4.4MB).
  2. G. Jo, P. Edinger, S. Bleiker, X. Wang, A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, N. Quack, M. Jezzini, P. Verheyen, I. Zand, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, G. Stemme, K. B. Gylfason, N. Niklaus, Wafer-level Hermetically Sealed Silicon Photonic MEMS, Photonics Research, 10(2), p.14 doi:10.1364/PRJ.441215 (2022)  Download this Publication (1.6MB).
  3. P. Edinger, A.Y. Takabayashi, C. Errando-Herranz, U. Khan, H. Sattari, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, K.B. Gylfason, Silicon photonic microelectromechanical phase shifters for scalable programmable photonics, Optics Letters, 46(22), p.5671-5674 doi:10.1364/OL.436288 (2021)  Download this Publication (4.7MB).
  4. A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, P. Verheyen, K.B. Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, Broadband Compact Single-Pole Double-Throw Silicon Photonic MEMS Switch, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 30(2), p.322-329 doi:10.1109/JMEMS.2021.3060182 (2021)  Download this Publication (2.4MB).
  5. H. Sattari, A.Y. Takabayashi, Y. Zhang, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, Compact broadband suspended silicon photonic directional coupler, Optics Letters, 45(11), p.2997-3000 doi:10.1364/OL.394470 (2020)  Download this Publication (1MB).
  6. N. Quack, H. Sattari, A.Y. Takabayashi, Y. Zhang, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, K.B Gylfason, MEMS-enabled Silicon Photonic Integrated Devices and Circuits, Journal of Quantum Electronics (invited), 56(1), p.8400210 doi:10.1109/JQE.2019.2946841 (2020)  Download this Publication (3.6MB).
  7. C. Errando-Herranz, N. Le Thomas, K. B. Gylfason, Low-power optical beam steering by microelectromechanical waveguide gratings, Optics Letters, 44(4), United States, doi:10.1364/OL.44.000855 (2019).
  8. S. Rudra, R. Van Hoof, J. De Coster, G. Bryce, S. Severi, A. Witvrouw, D. Van Thourhout, A 2D MEMS grating based CMOS compatible poly-SiGe variable optical attenuator, Microelectronics Engineering, 105, p.8-12 doi:10.1016/j.mee.2012.12.014 (2013)  Download this Publication (871KB).
  9. K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, P. Mechet, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Ultra-compact phase modulator based on a cascade of NEMS-operated slot waveguides fabricated in Silicon-On-Insulator, IEEE Photonics Journal, 4(3), p.779-788 doi:10.1109/jphot.2012.2198880 (2012)  Download this Publication (1.2MB).
  10. J. Roels, W. Van Der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Continuous Time-of-Flight ranging using a MEMS diffractive subwavelength period grating (de)modulator, Photonics Technology Letters, 20(22), p.1827-1829 doi:10.1109/lpt.2008.2004348 (2008)  Download this Publication (254KB).
  11. I. Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, Detection of nanomechanical motion by evanescent light wave coupling, Applied Physics Letters, 90, doi:10.1063/1.2746067 (2007)  Download this Publication (353KB).
      International Conferences

    1. U. Khan, I. Zand, L. Van Iseghem, P. Edinger, G. Jo, S. J. Bleiker, A. Y. Takabayashi, C. Antony, M. Jezzini, G. Talli, H. Sattari, J. Lee, A. K. Mallik, P. Verheyen, C. Lerma Arce, M. Garcia, T. Jonuzi, E. Picavet, K. Nagarjun, J. Watte, N. Quack, F. Niklaus, K. De Buysser, J. Beekman, W. Bogaerts, Low power actuators for programmable photonic processors, (invited) publication in SPIE Photonics West OPTO, United States,  (to be published).
    2. W. Bogaerts, Silicon Photonic Devices for Programmable Linear Circuitry, European Conference on Optical Communication (invited), Switzerland, (2022).
    3. N. Quack, A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, G. Jo, Simon J. Bleiker, C. Errando-Herranz, K.B. Gylfason, F. Niklaus, U. Khan, P. Verheyen, A. Kumar Mallik, J.S. Lee, M. Jezzini, G. Talli, C. Antony, P. O'Brien, W. Bogaerts, Silicon Photonic MEMS for Efficient Scaling of Programmable Integrated Optics, Micro and Nano Engineering (invited), Belgium, (2022).
    4. W. Bogaerts, A.Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, G. Jo, A.K. Mallik, C. Antony, I. Zand, T. Jonuzi, X. Chen, H. Sattari, J.S. Lee, M.A. Jezzini, G. Talli, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, P. Verheyen, N. Quack, K.B. Gylfason, F. Niklaus, U. Khan, Programmable Photonic Circuits Powered by Silicon Photonic MEMS Technology, Advanced Photonics Congress - NETWORKS, Netherlands, (2022).
    5. P. Edinger, A.Y. Takabayashi, U. Khan, C. Antony, G. Talli, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, K.B. Gylfason, Low-power micro-electro-mechanical ring resonators on IMEC, ePIXfab Silicon Photonics Summer School, France, (2022)  Download this Publication (10MB).
    6. P. Edinger, C.P.V. Nguyen, A.Y. Takabayashi, C. Antony, G. Talli, P. Verheyen, U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, K.B. Gylfason, Add-drop silicon ring resonator with low-power MEMS tuning of phase and coupling, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, United States, p.SF4M.5 doi:10.1364/CLEO_SI.2022.SF4M.5 (2022)  Download this Publication (1013KB).
    7. U. Khan, I. Zand, P. Edinger, G. Jo, S. Bleiker, A. Y. Takabayashi, C. Antony, J. Lee, A. Kumar, P. Verheyen, C. Lerma Arce, T. Jonuzi, J. Watte, N. Quack, F. Niklaus, K. Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, Large scale programmable photonic circuits using silicon photonic MEMS, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (invited), United States, p.AM2C.5 doi:10.1364/CLEO_AT.2022.AM2C.5 (2022)  Download this Publication (2MB).
    8. W. Bogaerts, Does the world need general-purpose programmable photonics?, European Conference on Integrated Optics (invited), Italy, p.F.E.1 (2022)  Download this Publication (1.5MB).
    9. W. Bogaerts, L. Van Iseghem, X. Chen, I. Zand, H. Deng, M. Wang, K.P. Nagarjun, U. Khan, Technologies for large-scale programmable photonic circuits, Progress in Electromagnetic Research (PIERS) (invited), China, (2022).
    10. U. Khan, I. Zand, P. Edinger, G. Jo, S. Bleiker, A. Y. Takabayashi, C. Antony, M. Jezzini, G. Talli, H. Sattari, J. Lee, A. Kumar, P. Verheyen, S. Kumar, C. Lerma Arce, M. Garcia, T. Jonuzi, J. Watte, N. Quack, F. Niklaus, K. Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, MORPHIC: MEMS enhanced silicon photonics for programmable circuits, SPIE Photonics Europe 2022, Proc. SPIE (invited), 121480, France, p.121480H doi:10.1117/12.2631231 (2022)  Download this Publication (44.7MB).
    11. W. Bogaerts, A.Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, G. Jo, I. Zand, P. Verheyen, M. Jezzini, H. Sattari, G. Talli, C. Antony, M. Saei, C. Lerma-Arce, J. Lee, S. Kumar, M. Garcia, T. Jonuzi, K.B. Gylfason, N. Quack, F. Niklaus, U. Khan, Programmable Silicon Photonic Circuits powered by MEMS, SPIE Photonics West OPTO (invited), 12005, United States, p.12005-21 doi:10.1117/12.2614213 (2022)  Download this Publication (36.7MB).
    12. I. Ansari, E. Dieussaert, J. George, G.F Feutmba, J. Beeckman, D. Van Thourhout, PZT based actuator for an efficient electro-optomechanical interaction in Si-photonic integrated circuit, SPIE Photonics West, United States, p.12004-67 doi:10.1117/12.2610629 (2022).
    13. A.Y. Takabayashi, D. Silva, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, P. Verheyen, K.B. Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, Compact Integrated Silicon Photonic Mems Power Coupler for Programmable Photonics, 2022 IEEE 35th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Conference (MEMS), Japan, p.216-219 doi:10.1109/MEMS51670.2022.9699708 (2022)  Download this Publication (5.7MB).
    14. P. Edinger, A.Y. Takabayashi, C. Errando-Herranz, U. Khan, C. Antony, G. Talli, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, K.B. Gylfason, A Bistable Silicon Photonic Mems Phase Switch for Nonvolatile Photonic Circuits, 2022 IEEE 35th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Conference (MEMS), Japan, p.995-997 doi:10.1109/MEMS51670.2022.9699739 (2022)  Download this Publication (4.4MB).
    15. I. Ansari, J. George, G.F Feutmba, J. Beeckman , D. Van Thourhout, Acousto-optic modulation in a Si-waveguide, IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, p.paper TuC2 (2 pages) doi:10.1109/GFP51802.2021.9673971 (2021)  Download this Publication (695KB).
    16. I. Ansari, E. Dieussaert, J. George, G.F Feutmba, J. Beeckman, D. Van Thourhout, PZT based MEMS actuators for photonic integration , Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, Belgium, (2021).
    17. N. Quack, A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, K.B. Gylfason, G. Jo, F. Niklaus, P. Verheyen, M. Jezzini, U. Khan, I. Zand, W. Bogaerts, Scalable Nano-Opto-Electromechanical Systems in Silicon Photonics, IEEE Photonics Conference (invited), doi:10.1109/IPC48725.2021.9593009 (2021)  Download this Publication (486KB).
    18. W. Bogaerts, L. Van Iseghem, M. Wang, H. Deng, X. Chen, I. Zand, K.P. Nagarjun, U. Khan, Programmable Photonic Circuits, SPIE Photonex (invited), United Kingdom, doi:10.1117/12.2600687 (2021).
    19. W. Bogaerts, L. Van Iseghem, M. Wang, H. Deng, I. Zand, X. Chen, K.P. Nagarjun, U. Khan, Programmable Silicon Photonics, International Conference on Solid State Devices and Materials (SSDM) (invited), p.E-2_01 (2021)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
    20. W. Bogaerts, A.Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, I. Zand, G. Jo, H. Sattari, P. Verheyen, M.A. Jezzini, C. Antony, G. Talli, M. Saei, S. Kumar, C. Lerma Arce, M. Garcia Porcel, N. Quack, K.B. Gylfason, F. Niklaus, U. Khan, Programmable Photonic Circuits using Silicon Photonic MEMS, Advanced Photonics Congress (invited), p.IM2A.1 doi:10.1364/IPRSN.2021.IM2A.1 (2021)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
    21. W. Bogaerts, M. Wang, X. Chen, H. Deng, I. Zand, L. Van Iseghem, K.P. Nagarjun, U. Khan, General-Purpose Programmable Photonic Chips, IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals (invited), p.WB2.1 doi:10.1109/SUM48717.2021.9505805 (2021)  Download this Publication (1.7MB).
    22. A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, P. Verheyen, K.B. Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, Continuously tunable Silicon Photonic MEMS 2x2 Power Coupler, 2021 21st International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers),, p.B5-5B6 doi:10.1109/Transducers50396.2021.9495551 (2021)  Download this Publication (5.6MB).
    23. P. Edinger, K. Kristinsson, C. Errando-Herranz, A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, N. Quack, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, K.B. Gylfason, Silicon photonic MEMS phase shifter with us time constant built on a foundry platform , Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, p.STu2Q.1 doi:10.1364/CLEO_SI.2021.STu2Q.1 (2021)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
    24. W. Bogaerts, L. Van Iseghem, P. Edinger, H. Sattari, A.Y. Takabayashi, X. Chen, H. Deng, P. Verheyen, A. Ribeiro, U. Khan, N. Quack, K.B. Gylfason, Low-Power Electro-Optic Actuators for Large-Scale Programmable Photonic Circuits, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (invited), p.STh1Q.4 doi:10.1364/CLEO_SI.2021.STh1Q.4 (2021)  Download this Publication (2MB).
    25. G. Jo, P. Edinger, S. Bleiker, X. Wang, A.Y.Takabayashi, H. Sattari, N. Quack, M. Jezzini, P. Verheyen, G. Stemme, W. Bogaerts, K.B. Gylfason, F. Niklaus, Wafer-level vacuum sealing for packaging of silicon photonic MEMS, SPIE Photonics West OPTO, 11691, p.116910E doi:10.1117/12.2582975 (2021)  Download this Publication (906KB).
    26. K.B. Gylfason, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, N. Quack, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, Compact and low power silicon photonic components based on MEMS, SPIE Photonics West OPTO (invited), 11697, p.116970Y doi:10.1117/12.2582947 (2021).
    27. H. Sattari, A.Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, P. Verheyen, K.B. Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, Low-Voltage Silicon Photonic MEMS Switch with Vertical Actuation, International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (IEEE MEMS 2021) , doi:10.1109/MEMS51782.2021.9375168 (2021)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
    28. H. Sattari, A.Y. Takabayashi, P. Edinger, P. Verheyen, K.B. Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, Silicon Photonic MEMS Add-Drop Filter, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Belgium, p.paper Tu2B-2 (3 pages) doi:10.1109/ECOC48923.2020.9333392 (2020)  Download this Publication (1.4MB).
    29. W. Bogaerts, P. Edinger, A.Y. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Chen, H. Sattari, P. Verheyen, M. Jezzini, G. Talli, S. Kumar, M. Garcia-Porcel, A. Ribeiro, G. Jo, N. Quack, K. Gylfason, F. Niklaus, U. Khan, Building Large-Scale Programmable Photonic Circuits Using Silicon Photonics MEMS, OSA Advanced Photonics Congress - Photonics in Switching and Computing (invited), Canada, p.PsTh1F.1 doi:10.1364/PSC.2020.PsTh1F.1 (2020)  Download this Publication (663KB).
    30. A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, P. Verheyen, K.B. Gylfason, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, Broadband Compact Single-Pole Double-Throw Silicon Photonic MEMS Switch, European Conference on Integrated Optics, p.10.1 (2020)  Download this Publication (492KB).
    31. P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, A.Y. Takabayashi, H. Sattari, N. Quack, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, K. Gylfason, Compact low loss MEMS phase shifters for scalable field-programmable silicon photonics, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, United States, p.SM3J.2 (2020)  Download this Publication (486KB).
    32. W. Bogaerts, H. Sattari, P. Edinger, A. Takabayashi, I. Zand, X. Wang, A. Ribeiro, M. Jezzini, C. Errando-Herranz, G. Talli, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, M. Garcia, P. Verheyen, B. Abasahl, F. Niklaus, N. Quack, K. Gylfason, P. O'Brien, U. Khan, MORPHIC: Programmable Photonic Circuits enabled by Silicon Photonic MEMS, SPIE Photonics West - OPTO (invited), 11285, United States, p.1128503 doi:10.1117/12.2540934 (2020)  Download this Publication (11.6MB).
    33. W. Bogaerts, A. Ribeiro, M. Wang, L. Van Iseghem, H. Deng, I. Zand, X. Chen, U. Khan, Technologies for large-scale programmable photonic circuits, AOS Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT) and Australian Conference on Optics, Lasers, and Spectroscopy (ACOLS) 2019 (invited), p.11200-55 (2019).
    34. U. Khan, B. Abasahl, I. Zand, N. Quack, K. Gylfason, M. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, M. A. G. Porcel, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, W. Bogaerts, Generic Platform for Silicon Photonics based on MEMS Reconfigurable Photonic Integrated Circuits, Photonics & Electromagnetics Research Symposium (PIERS) 2019 (invited), Italy, p.2271 (2019)  Download this Publication (557KB).
    35. N. Quack, H. Sattari, A.Y. Takabayashi, Y. Zhang, P. Edinger, C. Errando-Herranz, K. Gylfason, X. Wang, F. Niklaus, M. A. Jezzini, H.Y. Hwang, P. O'Brien, M.A.G. Porcel, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, B. Abasahl, P. Verheyen, W. Bogaerts, Silicon Photonic MEMS: Exploiting Mechanics at the Nanoscale to Enhance Photonic Integrated Circuits, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (invited), United States, p.M2D.3 doi:10.1364/ofc.2019.m2d.3 (2019)  Download this Publication (447KB).
    36. B. Abasahl, I. Zand, C. Lerma Arce, S. Kumar, N. Quack, M. A. Jezzini, H. Y. Hwang, K. Gylfason, M. A. G. Porcel, W. Bogaerts, Towards Low-Power Reconfigurable Photonic ICs Based on MEMS Technology, Australian Institute of Physics Congress (invited), Australia, (2018).
    37. U. Khan, W. Bogaerts, N. Quack, K.B. Gylfason , P. Verheyen, P. O'Brien, C.L. Arce, M. Garcia, The MORPHIC Project: Enabling large scale programmable photonic circuits using MEMS, Photonics Ireland Conference 2018 (invited), Ireland, p.We.J1.3 (2018)  Download this Publication (859KB).
    38. R. Wang, D. Sanchez, G. Roelkens, Design of a MEMS tunable mid-infrared VCSEL integrated on the SOI platform , Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Society Belenux Chapter, Netherlands, p.159-162 (2013)  Download this Publication (462KB).
    39. K. Van Acoleyen, J. Roels, T. Claes, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, NEMS-based optical phase modulator fabricated on Silicon-On-Insulator, 8th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, FC6, United Kingdom, p.371-373 doi:10.1109/group4.2011.6053820 (2011)  Download this Publication (994KB).
    40. S. Rudra, J. De Coster, R. Van Hoof, A. Witvrouw, D. Van Thourhout, Static and dynamic characterization of poly-SiGe Grating Light Valves, IEEE Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics 2011, Turkey, p.203-204 doi:10.1109/omems.2011.6031031 (2011)  Download this Publication (281KB).
    41. J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, B. Maes, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Optomechanical interactions between nanophotonic wires on a silicon-on-insulator-chip, Optical MEMS & Nanophotonics 2009, United States, p.33-34 doi:10.1109/omems.2009.5338609 (2009)  Download this Publication (308KB).
    42. J. Roels, W. Van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, A dynamic subwavelength pitch grating modulator for continuous Time-Of-Flight ranging with optical mixing, Optical MEMS&Nanophotonics 2008, Germany, p.176-177 doi:10.1109/omems.2008.4607886 (2008)  Download this Publication (302KB).
    43. J. Roels, W. Van Der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, M. Kuijk, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Measuring the time-of-flight with an optical MEMS-modulator, ePIXnetSpring School , Italy, p.40 - poster nr. 8 (2008)  Download this Publication (654KB).
    44. W. van der Tempel, D. Van Nieuwenhove, R. Grootjans, L. Jovanov, J. Roels, A. Pizurica, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, W. Philips, M. Kuijk, State-of-the-art modulator approaches for Continuous Time-of-Flight range finding, IEEE/LEOS Symposium Benelux Chapter Proceedings,2007, Belgium, p.63-66 (2007)  Download this Publication (2.7MB).
    45. I. De Vlaminck, J. Roels, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, L. Lagae, R. Baets, G. Borghs, Integrated nanomechanical motion detection by evanescent light-wave coupling, SPIE Photonics West (MOEMS/MEMS), United States, (2007)  Download this Publication (3.3MB).
    46. J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, D. Van Thourhout, L. Lagae, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, A nanophotonic NEMS-modulator in Silicon-on-Insulator, 2006 Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Netherlands, (2006)  Download this Publication (826KB).
    47. J. Roels, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Nanophotonic NEMS modulators in Silicon-on-insulator, ePIXnet Winter School, Optoelectronic Integration - Technology and Applications, Switzerland, p.75 (2006)  Download this Publication (541KB).
        National Conferences

      1. J. Roels, I. De Vlaminck, D. Van Thourhout, L. Lagae, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, A nanophotonic NEMS-modulator in silicon-on-insulator, 7e UGent-FirW Doctoraatssymposium, interactive poster session, Belgium, p.paper nr. 19 (2006)  Download this Publication (534KB).

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