Photonics Research Group Home
Ghent University Research Topics
About People Research Publications Education
 IMEC
intern

 

WDM components

Research Area: Silicon photonics for telecom, datacom and interconnect

Main Researcher: Pieter Dumon

Silicon-on-insulator technology allows for a dramatic reduction of the footprint of integrated optical filters. Light can be forced to turn, split and interact over distances of just a few thousandths of a millimetre. The key to this size reduction is the very high refractive index contrast of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide structures. These waveguides have submicrometre dimensions and confine light very tightly within the waveguide core.

Wafer-scale integration of ultra-compact WDM devices in silicon-on-insulator.
Wafer-scale integration of ultra-compact WDM devices in silicon-on-insulator.

The size reduction of high index-contrast SOI technology however comes at the cost of a very strong sensitivity to small dimensional variations, which exist due to processing imperfections. Also,the only way to use silicon technology in the real world, and at the same time the main reason to use it, is to build on the wafer-scale technology developed for fabrication of electronic device, and more specifically CMOS devices. Integration with CMOS on the same chip is then even a possibility.
However, photonic and electronic integrated circuits have very different requirements with respect to fabrication technology, at least for general high-contrast integrated structures. The wafer-scale, high throughput CMOS technology was not developed to support features varying from fully isolated to dense and perfectly periodic structures in the same processing step. Due to the alignment tolerances of photonic circuits, this is needed for photonic ICs. This has a large impact on the development of fabrication processes and the performance of optical filters. Small, nanometre-scale variations of the feature size within a structure give rise to imperfect imaging or suboptimal interference, resulting in loss and crosstalk between wavelength channels.

Racetrack resonator
Racetrack resonator

We have demonstrated ring resonators with bend radii of just 1 to
5 ým. Single-ring channel drop filters with a large free spectral range, low insertion loss and down to 20 dB extinction in the throughput channel were demonstrated. Lower loss and lower distributed scattering would allow for higher-order filters to be designed and fabricated.

Mach-Zehdner lattice filters dropping one channel out of 4 or 8 were designed and fabricated with WDM channel spacings of 100 to 400 GHz.
These filters can be designed with filter synthesis methods well-known from the digital filter world. The fabricated devices showed a low loss, bandwidths as designed and an extinction of the order of 10 dB (down to 15 dB in the dropped channel port). Analysis showed the crosstalk is due to both coupler variations and phase errors in the delay lines. These phase errors were already reduced by broadening the waveguides in the straight sections of the delay lines.

Wavelength routers based on arrayed waveguide gratings were designed and fabricated. Devices with 4 to 16 wavelength channels and 100 to 400GHz channel spacings, showed an insertion loss of down to 2.5 dB
and a channel isolation level down to 15 to 17 dB. To reach this, the refractive index contrast was lowered around the star couplers through a double-etch process, and the arrayed waveguides were made less sensitive to small dimensional variations by broadening them.

The components were fabricated with wafer-scale processes that are developed for fabrication of a wide range of structures. Despite the present non-uniformity between and within structures, a component performance decent enough for first application tests was demonstrated, with optical filters with WDM channel spacings fitting on a footprint of the order of just 0.01 to 0.1 mm2.

Other people involved:

Related Research Projects

PhD thesises

Patents

Publications

    International Journals

  1. A. Li, W. Bogaerts, Fundamental Suppression of Backscattering in Silicon Microrings, Optics Express, (2017)  Download this Publication (2.5MB).
  2. A. Li, T. Van Vaerenbergh, P. De Heyn, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, Backscattering in Silicon Microring Resonators: A Quantitative Analysis, Laser & Photonics Reviews, 10(3), (2016)  Download this Publication (1.3MB).
  3. A. Li, Q. Huang, W. Bogaerts, Design of a single all-silicon ring resonator with a 150 nm FSR and a 100 nm tuning range around 1550 nm, Photonics Research , 4(2), (2016)  Download this Publication (2.9MB).
  4. A. Hope, T.G. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, Quantitative analysis of TM lateral leakage in foundry fabricated silicon rib waveguides, Photonics Technology Letters, 28(4), p.493-496 (2016)  Download this Publication (1.9MB).
  5. S. Dwivedi, A. Ruocco, M. Vanslembrouck, T. Spuesens, P. Bienstman, P. Dumon, T. Van Vaerenbergh, W. Bogaerts, Experimental Extraction of Effective Refractive Index and Thermo-Optic Coefficients of Silicon-On-Insulator Waveguides using Interferometers, Journal of Lightwave Technology , 33(21), p.4471 - 4477  (2015)  Download this Publication (854KB).
  6. T. Ako, A. Hope, T. Nguyen, A. Mitchell, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, J. Beeckman, Electrically tuneable lateral leakage loss in liquid crystal clad shallow-etched silicon waveguides, Optics Express, 23(3), p.2846-2856 (2015)  Download this Publication (2.5MB).
  7. M. Verbist, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, Design of Weak 1-D Bragg Grating Filters in SOI Waveguides Using Volume Holography Techniques, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 32(10), p.1915 - 1920 (2014)  Download this Publication (2MB).
  8. T. Ako, J. Beeckman, W. Bogaerts, K. Neyts, Tuning the Lateral Leakage Loss of TM-like modes in Shallow-etched Waveguides using Liquid Crystals, Applied Optics, 53(2), p.214-220 (2014)  Download this Publication (657KB).
  9. M. Verbist, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, Weak Gratings in Silicon-on-Insulator for Spectral Filters based on Volume Holography, Optics Letters, 38(3), p.386-388 (2013)  Download this Publication (419KB).
  10. W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Silicon microring resonators, Lasers & Photonics Reviews, 6(1), p.47-73 (2012)  Download this Publication (1.9MB).
  11. Evangelos Grivas, Efstathios D. Kyriakis-Bitzaros, George Halkias, Stavros G. Katsafouros, G. Morthier, P. Dumon, R. Baets, Tom Farell, Neil Ryan, Iain McKenzie, Errico Armadillo, Wavelength division multiplexing based optical backplane with arrayed waveguide grating passive router, Optical Engineering, 47(2), (2008)  Download this Publication (837KB).
  12. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires, Optics Express, 15(4), p.1567-1578  (2007)  Download this Publication (1MB).
  13. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires, J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 12(6), p.1394-1401 (2006)  Download this Publication (799KB).
  14. P. Dumon, G.R.A. Priem, L.R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T.K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 45(8B), p.6589-6602 (2006)  Download this Publication (649KB).
  15. S. Verspurten, G. Morthier, R. Baets, Experimental and Numerical Small-Signal Analysis of Two Types of Gain-Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 42(3), p.302-312 (2006)  Download this Publication (717KB).
  16. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, P. Jaenen, Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array, Optics Express, 14(2), p.664-669 (2006)  Download this Publication (707KB).
  17. G. Morthier, B. Moeyersoon, Improvement of the direct modulation behaviour of semiconductor lasers by using a holding beam, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 16(7), p.1616-1618 (2004)  Download this Publication (101KB).
  18. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Low-loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 16(5), p.1328-1330 (2004)  Download this Publication (160KB).
  19. B. Moeyersoon, G. Morthier, M. Zhao, Degradation of the mode suppression in Single Mode Laser Diodes due to integrated optical amplifiers , IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, 40(3), p.241-244 (2004)  Download this Publication (282KB).
      International Conferences

    1. A. Li, Y. Xing, W. Bogaerts, An integrated tunable reflector, European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, Netherlands, p.paper W3.1 (2017)  Download this Publication (971KB).
    2. A. Li, W. Bogaerts, A simple and novel method to obtain a FSR free Silicon Microring, SPIE Photonics Europe 2016, 9891, Belgium, p.paper 989115 (2016)  Download this Publication (851KB).
    3. S. Dwivedi, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexer on Silicon-On-Insulator for 100 GbE, 12th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), Canada, p.WC2 (2015)  Download this Publication (265KB).
    4. Z. Wang, A. Malik, B. Tian, M. Muneeb, Clement Merckling, Marianna Pantouvaki, Yosuke Shimura, Roger Loo, Joris Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, G. Roelkens, Near/Mid-Infrared Heterogeneous Si Photonics, The 9th International Conference On Silicon Epitaxy And Heterostructures (invited), (2015)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
    5. A. Ruocco, M. Fiers, M. Vanslembrouck, T. Van Vaerenbergh, W. Bogaerts, Multi-parameter extraction from SOI photonic integrated circuits using circuit simulation and evolutionary algorithms, Proc. SPIE, Smart Photonic and Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits XVII, 9366, United States, p.936606 (2015)  Download this Publication (3.8MB).
    6. S. Pathak, H. Yu, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, A fast 4-channel silicon switch using an AWG with 12 carrier depletion modulators, 11th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), France, p.237-238 (2014)  Download this Publication (1.2MB).
    7. A. Ruocco, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, SOI Lattice Filters Design Framework: from Functional Parameters to Layout, Proceedings of the 18th Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Society Benelux Chapter, Netherlands, p.223-226 (2013)  Download this Publication (1.4MB).
    8. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Ultra-compact optical filters in Silicon-on-Insulator and their Applications, Group IV Photonics (invited), Japan, p.WA1 (2007)  Download this Publication (1.5MB).
    9. R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, SOI Photonic Wire Based Components with Compact and Efficient Fiber Couplers , Optical Fiber Communications (invited), United States, p.OWG3 (2007)  Download this Publication (594KB).
    10. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, E. Pluk, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, A Compact Polarization-Independent Wavelength Duplexer Using a Polarization-Diversity SOI Photonic Wire Circuit , Optical Fiber Communications, United States, p.OTuM2 (2007)  Download this Publication (225KB).
    11. E.D. Kyriakis-Bitzaros, E. Grivas, G. Halkias, S. Katsafouros, P. Dumon, G. Morthier, R. Baets, T. Farell, N. Ryan, I. McKenzie, E. Armadillo, A WDM Optical Backplane with AWG Based Passive Routing, Photonics in Switching 2006, Greece, p.273-275 (2006)  Download this Publication (200KB).
    12. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, R. Baets, Compact arrayed waveguide grating devices in silicon-on-insulator, Proceedings Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.105-108 (2005)  Download this Publication (251KB).
    13. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, J. Wouters, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, R. Baets, Silicon-on-Insulator Nanophotonics, SPIE Optics and Optoelectronics (invited), 5956, Poland, p.5956R-1-15 (2005)  Download this Publication (758KB).
    14. R. Baets, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, W. Bogaerts, L. Vanholme, Silicon-on-insulator based high index contrast waveguide devices: research in europe, 11th Microoptics Conference (MOC) (invited), Japan, p.E2, Session C ( 4 pages) (2005)  Download this Publication (303KB).
    15. P. Dumon, R. Baets, R. Kappeler, D. Barros, I. McKenzie, D. Doyle, Measured radiation sensitivity of Silica-on-Silicon and Silicon-on-insulator micro-photonic devices for potential space application, Optics and Photonics, Photonics for Space Environments X, 5897, United States, (2005)  Download this Publication (3.4MB).
    16. D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, Silicon-on-Insulator Platform for Integrated Wavelength-Selective Components, Workshop on Fibres and Optical Passive Components (invited), Italy, (2005)  Download this Publication (1MB).
    17. P. Dumon, I. Christiaens, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Microring resonators in Silicon-on-insulator, ECIO 2005 , France, p.196-199 (2005)  Download this Publication (606KB).
    18. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, Wavelength-selective components in SOI photonic wires fabricated with deep UV lithography, Group IV Photonics, Hong Kong, p.WB5 (2004)  Download this Publication (199KB).
    19. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, Cascaded Mach-Zehnder Filters in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires fabricated with deep UV lithography, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2004, Th.(Post-deadline), Sweden, p.24-25 (2004)  Download this Publication (108KB).
    20. R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, Nanophotonic waveguides in SOI by means of deep UV lithography, Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-V) (invited), Japan, p.160 (2004)  Download this Publication (234KB).
    21. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Low-loss photonic wires and compact ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator, LEOS Benelux Annual Symposium 2003, Netherlands, (2003)  Download this Publication (314KB).
    22. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Low-loss, single-mode photonic wires ring resonators in Silicon-on-Insulator, LEOS 2003, 1, United States, p.289-299 (2003)  Download this Publication (151KB).
        National Conferences

      1. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, A nanophotonic 4x4 wavelength router in silicon-on-insulator, 6th UGent-FirW Doctoraatssymposium, Belgium, p.38 (paper nr. 27) (2005)  Download this Publication (435KB).
      2. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, WDM filters in Silicon-on-insulator photonic wires, Doctoraatssymposium Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen, Belgium, (2004)  Download this Publication (485KB).
      3. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology, 1st Flanders Engineering PhD Symposium, Belgium, p.63 (2003)  Download this Publication (301KB).
      4. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology, 4th UGent FTW PhD Symposium, Belgium, p.56 (2003)  Download this Publication (301KB).

      Back to overview