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Silicon (nano)photonic devices fabrication with 193nm and 248nm (DUV) Optical lithography

Research Area: Silicon Photonics Process Technology

Main Researcher: Shankar Kumar Selvaraja

One major limitation for the widespread use of photonic crystals is the lack of efficient fabrication technologies. Most photonic crystals today are defined using e-beam lithography, a technique which can handle the resolutions required for photonic crystals at telecom wavelengths, but lacks the possibility for industrial application due to long writing times. Other techniques used for the large-scale fabrication of current PICs cannot print the fine details of photonic crystals.

(a) Photonic crystals of 300nm pitch and 180nm hole  dia  and (b) W1 photonic crystal waveguide  fabricated by 193nm lithography technology.
(a) Photonic crystals of 300nm pitch and 180nm hole dia and (b) W1 photonic crystal waveguide fabricated by 193nm lithography technology.

Deep UV lithography has the promise to solve this issue. This optical lithography technique based on excimer lasers with wavelength of 248nm and shorter is used state-of-the-art CMOS-facilities. The short wavelengths (193nm) can resolve periodic structures with periods down to a few 100nm.

Our material of choice is Silicon-on-Insulator. SOI is a good material system for the fabrication of Photonic Crystals because it is transparent for the main telecom wavelenghts, it has a high refractive index contrast, and it can be processed in silicon-based facilities.
As photonic crystal structures differ significantly from typical CMOS-circuits, lithography knowledge cannot be ported in a straightforward manner to photonic crystals. Key differences between these two types of structures are the lattice type (preferably triangular for photonic crystals versus square in CMOS-circuits) and the fill factor of the unit cell. We have therefore, studied the possibilities of manufacturing photonic crystal-like structures with this technology. For this purpose, we used the 248nm and 193nm deep UV lithography facilities available at IMEC. These consist of an ASML PAS 5500/750 and PAS 5500/1100 DUV stepper attached to an automated resist processing track.

Fabrication process with 19nm deep UV lithography
Fabrication process with 19nm deep UV lithography

For Photonic wires of 450nm wide fabricated using 193nm optical lithography and etch, we achieved a propagation loss of 2.8 dB/cm, which is the lowest wire loss reported using optical lithography. This loss is further reduced to 1.8 dB/cm by applying a surface treatment to the wires. For photonic crystal waveguides (with 248nm process), the losses are still an order of magnitude higher, with 7.5dB/mm for a W1 waveguide.

We have also implemented a large number of WDM-devices, such as Arrayed Waveguide gratings, planar curved gratings, coupled cavity waveguides, lattice filters and resonators.

Photonic structures fabricated by 193nm lithography technology
Photonic structures fabricated by 193nm lithography technology

Other people involved:

Related Research Projects

Downloads

Fabrication of SOI Photonic Crystals with deep UV lithography Fabrication of SOI Photonic Crystals with deep UV lithography
Nanophotonic ICs: the promise and the problems (Norway 2004) Nanophotonic ICs: the promise and the problems (Norway 2004)
(Nano)photonics in Silicon(-on-Insulator) (Nano)photonics in Silicon(-on-Insulator)
Silicon-on-Insulator based Nanophotonics Why, How, What for? Silicon-on-Insulator based Nanophotonics Why, How, What for?

PhD thesises

Patents

Publications

    International Journals

  1. W. Xie, M. Fiers, S. Selvaraja, P. Bienstman, J. Van Campenhout, Philippe Absil, D. Van Thourhout, High-Q Photonic Crystal Nanocavities on 300mm SOI Substrate Fabricated With 193 nm Immersion Lithography, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 32(18), p.1457 - 1462 (2014)  Download this Publication (415KB).
  2. D.-X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, X. Chen, D. Van Thourhout, S. Keyvaninia, S. Selvaraja, Silicon photonic integration platform – Have we found the sweet spot?, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics (invited), 20(4), (2014)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
  3. T. Spuesens, F. Mandorlo, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Regreny, N. Olivier, J.M. Fedeli, D. Van Thourhout, Compact integration of optical sources and detectors on SOI for optical interconnects fabricated in a 200 mm CMOS pilot line, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 30(11), p.1764-1770 (2012)  Download this Publication (1.3MB).
  4. W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, Compact Single-mode Silicon Hybrid Rib/Strip Waveguide with Adiabatic Bends, IEEE Photonics Journal, 3(3), p.422-232 (2011)  Download this Publication (1.2MB).
  5. W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, J. Brouckaert, K. De Vos, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Silicon-on-Insulator Spectral Filters Fabricated with CMOS Technology, J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (invited), 16(1), p.33-44 (2010)  Download this Publication (2.3MB).
  6. S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Sub-nanometer linewidth uniformity in silicon nano-photonic waveguide devices using CMOS fabrication technology , IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 16(1), p.316 - 324  (2010)  Download this Publication (872KB).
  7. A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, D. Giannone, W. Bogaerts, E. Drouard, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Gaffiot, Synthesis of highly integrated optical network based on microdisk-resonator add-drop filters in SOI technology, Optical Engineering, 48(10), p.104601  (2009).
  8. D. Néel, T. Benyattou, P. Sanchis, J. Martí, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, Optical near-field study of photonic crystal tapers, Applied Optics, 48(30), p.5718-5721 (2009)  Download this Publication (561KB).
  9. J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Silicon-on-Insulator CWDM Power Monitor/Receiver with Integrated Thin Film InGaAs Photodetectors, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 21(19), p.1423 (2009)  Download this Publication (350KB).
  10. S. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Fabrication of Photonic Wire and Crystal Circuits in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 193nm Optical Lithography, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 27(18), p.4076-4083 (2009)  Download this Publication (3.5MB).
  11. A. Kazmierczak, W. Bogaerts, E. Drouard, F. Dortu, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Gaffiot, D. Van Thourhout, D. Giannone, Highly Integrated Optical 4x4 Crossbar in Silicon-on-Insulator Technology, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 27(16), p.3317-3323 (2009)  Download this Publication (1.6MB).
  12. J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. Zhang, X. Jian, X. Han, M. Zhao, G. Morthier, R. Baets, Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides, Optics Express, 17(17), p.14627-14633 (2009)  Download this Publication (744KB).
  13. S. Selvaraja, Erik Sleeckx, Marc Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, Low-Loss Amorphous Silicon-On-Insulator Technology for Photonic Integrated Circuitry, Optics Communications, 282(9), p. 1767-1770 (2009)  Download this Publication (1002KB).
  14. Landobasa Y.M. Tobing, Desmond C.S. Lim, P. Dumon, R. Baets, Mee-Koy Chin, Finesse enhancement in silicon-on-insulator two-ring resonator system, Applied Physics Letters, 92, p.101122 (2008)  Download this Publication (550KB).
  15. J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain, Optics Express, 16(6), p.3738-3743 (2008)  Download this Publication (727KB).
  16. J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, R. Baets, D. Van Thourhout, Planar Concave Grating Demultiplexer with High Reflective Bragg Reflector Facets, Photonics Technology Letters, 20(4), p.309-311 (2008)  Download this Publication (1.5MB).
  17. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Low-Loss, Low-Crosstalk Crossings for SOI Nanophotonic Waveguides, Optics Letters, 32(19), p.2801-2803 (2007)  Download this Publication (437KB).
  18. J. Brouckaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Planar Concave Grating Demultiplexer Fabricated on a Nanophotonic Silicon-on-Insulator Platform, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 25(5), p.1269-1275 (2007)  Download this Publication (327KB).
  19. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires, Optics Express, 15(4), p.1567-1578  (2007)  Download this Publication (1MB).
  20. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Compact Wavelength-Selective Functions in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires, J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 12(6), p.1394-1401 (2006)  Download this Publication (799KB).
  21. W.C.L. Hopman, A.J.F. Hollinck, R.M. de Ridder, K.O. van der Werf, V. Subramamiam, W. Bogaerts, Nano-mechanical tuning and imaging of a photonic crystal micro-cavity resonance, Optics Express, 14(19), p.8745-8752 (2006)  Download this Publication (1.1MB).
  22. T.K. Liang, L.R. Nunes, M. Tuschiya, K.S. Abedin, T. Miyazaki, D. Van Thourhout, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H.K. Tsang, High speed logic gate using two-photon absorption in Silicon waveguides, Optics Communications, 265(1), p.171-174 (2006)  Download this Publication (194KB).
  23. P. Dumon, G.R.A. Priem, L.R. Nunes, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, T.K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, Linear and nonlinear nanophotonic devices based on silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 45(8B), p.6589-6602 (2006)  Download this Publication (649KB).
  24. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, P. Jaenen, Compact wavelength router based on a Silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array, Optics Express, 14(2), p.664-669 (2006)  Download this Publication (707KB).
  25. P. Sanchis, J. Marti, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Experimental results on adiabatic coupling into SOI photonic Crystal coupled-cavity waveguides, Photonics Technology Letters, 17(6), p.1199-1201 (2005)  Download this Publication (351KB).
  26. H. Gersen, T.J. Karle, R.J.P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, T.F. Krauss, L. Kuipers, Direct observation of Bloch harmonics and negative phase velocity in photonic crystal waveguides, Physics Review Letters, 94(12), p.123901 (2005)  Download this Publication (454KB).
  27. H. Gersen, T.J. Karle, R.J.P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, T.F. Krauss, L. Kuipers, Real space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides., Physics Review Letters, 94(7), p.073903 (2005)  Download this Publication (628KB).
  28. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology, Journal of Lightwave Technology (invited), 23(1), p.401-412 (2005)  Download this Publication (2.5MB).
  29. P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, A. Harpoeth, J.B. Leon, H. Liu, M. Kristensen, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends, Electronics Letters, 40(20), p.1263-1264 (2004)  Download this Publication (306KB).
  30. P. Sanchis, J. Garcia, J. Marti, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, Experimental demonstration of high coupling efficiency between wide ridge dielectric waveguides and single-mode photonic crystal waveguides , IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 16(10), p.2272-2274 (2004)  Download this Publication (409KB).
  31. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, SOI Nanophotonic Waveguide Structures Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography , Photonics and Nanostructures: Fundamentals and Applications (invited), 2(2), p.81-86 (2004)  Download this Publication (398KB).
  32. L.H. Frandsen, P.I. Borel, Y.X. Zhuang, A. Harpoeth, M. Thorhauge, M. Kristensen, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, Ultra Low Loss 3 dB Photonic Crystal Waveguide Splitter , Optics Letters, 29(14), p.1623-1625 (2004)  Download this Publication (731KB).
  33. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Low-loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 16(5), p.1328-1330 (2004)  Download this Publication (160KB).
  34. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, Basic structures for photonic integrated circuits in Silicon-on-insulator, Optics Express (invited), 12(8), p.1583-1591 (2004)  Download this Publication (5.2MB).
  35. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, Fabrication of Photonic Crystals in Silicon-on-Insulator Using 248-nm Deep UV Lithography, IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 8(4), p.928-934 (2002)  Download this Publication (652KB).
    Book / Book Chapter

  1. W. Bogaerts, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, Technologies and Building Blocks for On-Chip Optical Interconnects, Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems (invited), (2012).
    International Conferences

  1. S. Selvaraja, Luis Fernandez, M. Vanslembrouck, Jean-Luc Everaert, P. Dumon, J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, Philippe Absil, Si photonic device uniformity improvement using wafer-scale location specific processing, IEEE Photonics Conference 2012 (IPC), United States, p.725-726 (2012)  Download this Publication (1.6MB).
  2. Peter Verheyen, Guy Lepage, Joris Van Campenhout, Marianna Pantouvaki, Philippe Absil, P. De Heyn, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Selvaraja, Co-integration of Ge detectors and Si modulators in an advanced Si photonics platform, SPIE Photonics Europe 2012, 8431, Belgium, p.paper 39 (2012)  Download this Publication (582KB).
  3. S. Selvaraja, E.Rosseel, L.Fernandez, Martin Tabat, W. Bogaerts, J. Hautala, P. Absil, SOI thickness uniformity improvement using wafer-scale corrective etching for silicon nano-photonic device, 16th Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.289-292 (2011)  Download this Publication (551KB).
  4. H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, K. Komorowska, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, R. Baets, 12.5 Gbit/s carrier-depletion based silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with a 2 V driven voltage, 16th Annual Symposium of the IEEE Photonics Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.93-96 (2011)  Download this Publication (516KB).
  5. W. Bogaerts, Silicon Photonics, Rusnanotech Forum (invited), Russia, p.Th.J.2.1 (2011)  Download this Publication (1022KB).
  6. S. Selvaraja, E.Rosseel, L.Fernandez, Martin Tabat, W. Bogaerts, J. Hautala, P. Absil, SOI Thickness Uniformity Improvement using Corrective Etching for Silicon Nano-Photonic Device, 8th International Conference on Group IV Photonics, United Kingdom, p.71-73 (2011)  Download this Publication (534KB).
  7. W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, H. Yu, T. Spuesens, P. Mechet, S. Stankovic, S. Keyvaninia, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, A Silicon Photonics Platform with Heterogeneous III-V Integration, Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nano-Photonics (IPR) (invited), Canada, p.IWC2 (2011)  Download this Publication (283KB).
  8. W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, J. Van Campenhout, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, H. Yu, A. Masood, G. Roelkens, R. Baets, Optical Interconnect Technologies based on Silicon Photonics, MRS Spring 2011 (invited), United States, p.O10.1 (2011)  Download this Publication (926KB).
  9. W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Photonic Integrated Circuits in Silicon-on-Insulator, IEEE SOI Conference (invited), United States, p.9.02 (2010)  Download this Publication (183KB).
  10. S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Record Low-Loss Hybrid Rib/Wire Waveguides for Silicon Photonic Circuits , Group IV Photonics 2010 (PD), China, (2010)  Download this Publication (394KB).
  11. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, p. Absil, S. Selvaraja, H. Yu, A. Masood, A silicon photonics platform with heterogeneous III-V integration, Workshop on the Future of Silicon Photonics (invited), China, p.11 (2010)  Download this Publication (353KB).
  12. S. Selvaraja, K. De Vos, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Effect of Device Density on the Uniformity of Silicon Nano-Photonic Waveguide Devices, The 22nd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Turkey, p.311-312 (2009)  Download this Publication (732KB).
  13. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Selvaraja, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Silicon nanophotonic waveguide components, Silicon Nanoelectronics and Photonics (SiNEP) 2009 (invited), Spain, p.33-34 (2009)  Download this Publication (381KB).
  14. T. Vallaitis, D. Hillerkuss, J.-S. Li, R. Bonk, N. Lindenmann, P. Dumon, R. Baets, M.L. Scimeca, I. Biaggio, F. Diederich, C. Koos, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, All-Optical Wavelength Conversion Using Cross-Phase Modulation at 42.7 Gbit/s in Silicon-Organic Hybrid (SOH) Waveguides, Photonics in Switching 2009, Italy, (2009)  Download this Publication (428KB).
  15. S. Clemmen, K. Phan Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Emplit, S. Massar, Towards an Integrated Narrowband Source for Quantum Information: Photon Pair Generation in a Silicon Racetrack Resonator, Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (IPNRA), United States, p.IME1 (2009)  Download this Publication (128KB).
  16. S. Selvaraja, D. Vermeulen, Marc Schaekers, Erik Sleeckx, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Highly Efficient Grating Coupler between Optical Fiber and Silicon Photonic Circuit, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2009 , United States, p.CTuC6 (2009)  Download this Publication (269KB).
  17. D. Van Thourhout, I. O'Connor, A. Scandurra, L. Liu, W. Bogaerts, S. Selvaraja, G. Roelkens, Nanophotonic Devices for Optical Networks-on-Chip, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (invited), United States, p.CMAA2 (2009)  Download this Publication (495KB).
  18. S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Amorphous silicon photonic crystals made with 193nm lithography, The 8th International Photonic & Electromagnetic Crystal Structures Meeting (PECS), Australia, (2009)  Download this Publication (86KB).
  19. S. Selvaraja, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Erik Sleeckx, Marc Schaekers, Demonstration Of Optical Via And Low-Loss Optical Crossing For Vertical Integration Of Silicon Photonic Circuit, PHOTONICS 2008:The International Conference on Fiber Optics and Photonics (BEST PAPER AWARD), India, (2008)  Download this Publication (317KB).
  20. S. Clemmen, K.P. Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Emplit, S. Massar, Photon pair generation in a continuous regim in nanophotonic silico waveguides, 13th Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Netherlands, p.67-70 (2008)  Download this Publication (394KB).
  21. J. Brouckaert, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, M.Y. Ling, J. Allaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Silicon-on-Insulator Microspectrometer, 13th Annual Symposium of the IEEE/LEOS Benelux chapter, Netherlands, p.7-10 (2008)  Download this Publication (456KB).
  22. J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, Z. Yu, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Miniature Integrated Spectrometer Fabricated on a Silicon-on-Insulator Substrate, Leos Annual Meeting, United States, p.MF3 (2008)  Download this Publication (1MB).
  23. J. Brouckaert, G. Roelkens, S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, S. Verstuyft, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Compact Silicon-on-Insulator Wavelength Demultiplexer with Heterogeneously Integrated InAlAs/InGaAs Photodetectors, ECOC 2008, Belgium, p.Tu.4.C.5 (2008)  Download this Publication (764KB).
  24. J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction, ECIO 2008, (2008)  Download this Publication (142KB).
  25. S. Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Fabrication of Uniform Photonic Devices Using 193nm Optical Lithography in Silicon-on-Insulator , 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO), Netherlands, (2008)  Download this Publication (167KB).
  26. S. Selvaraja, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Fabrication of photonic integrated circuits using high resolution CMOS fabrication process, ePIXnet Springshool 2008, Italy, (2008)  Download this Publication (851KB).
  27. P. Dumon, J.-M. Fédéli, W. Bogaerts, The ePIXnet silicon photonics platform, Workshop on Fibers and Optical Passive Components (invited), Taiwan, p.W4B-1 (2007)  Download this Publication (324KB).
  28. S. Selvaraja, Patrick Jaenen, Stephan Beckx, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Silicon nanophotonic wire structures fabricated by 193nm optical lithography , LEOS Annual Meeting 2007 (invited), United States, (2007)  Download this Publication (665KB).
  29. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, J.-M. Fedeli, A. Tchelnokov, D. Van Thourhout, S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, A Platform for Silicon-on-Insulator Nanophotonics on Industrial CMOS Tools, Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PCS-VII), United States, (2007)  Download this Publication (155KB).
  30. R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, SOI Photonic Wire Based Components with Compact and Efficient Fiber Couplers , Optical Fiber Communications (invited), United States, p.OWG3 (2007)  Download this Publication (594KB).
  31. F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Compact Focusing Grating Couplers Between Optical Fibers and Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wire Waveguides , Optical Fiber Communications, United States, p.OWG1 (2007)  Download this Publication (556KB).
  32. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, E. Pluk, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, A Compact Polarization-Independent Wavelength Duplexer Using a Polarization-Diversity SOI Photonic Wire Circuit , Optical Fiber Communications, United States, p.OTuM2 (2007)  Download this Publication (225KB).
  33. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Compact, Low-Loss Waveguide Crossings for High-Index-Contrast SOI Photonic Wires , Optical Fiber Communications, United States, p.OTuM1 (2007)  Download this Publication (359KB).
  34. E.D. Kyriakis-Bitzaros, E. Grivas, G. Halkias, S. Katsafouros, P. Dumon, G. Morthier, R. Baets, T. Farell, N. Ryan, I. McKenzie, E. Armadillo, A WDM Optical Backplane with AWG Based Passive Routing, Photonics in Switching 2006, Greece, p.273-275 (2006)  Download this Publication (200KB).
  35. D. Néel, T. Benyattou, P. Sanchis, J. Marti, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Near-Field Characterization of Coupled-Cavity Waveguides on SOI, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2006, France, p.Th3.1.2 (2006)  Download this Publication (3.1MB).
  36. D. Néel, T. Benyattou, P. Sanchis, J. Marti, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, Characterization of SOI photonic crystals tapers by Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy (SNOM), European Materials Research Society (E-MRS) Spring Meeting, France, p.D S4 04 (2006)  Download this Publication (428KB).
  37. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, R. Baets, Compact arrayed waveguide grating devices in silicon-on-insulator, Proceedings Symposium IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Belgium, p.105-108 (2005)  Download this Publication (251KB).
  38. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, J. Wouters, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, R. Baets, Silicon-on-Insulator Nanophotonics, SPIE Optics and Optoelectronics (invited), 5956, Poland, p.5956R-1-15 (2005)  Download this Publication (758KB).
  39. R. Baets, D. Van Thourhout, G. Morthier, W. Bogaerts, L. Vanholme, Silicon-on-insulator based high index contrast waveguide devices: research in europe, 11th Microoptics Conference (MOC) (invited), Japan, p.E2, Session C ( 4 pages) (2005)  Download this Publication (303KB).
  40. G. Roelkens, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Efficient fiber to SOI photonic wire coupler fabricated using standard CMOS technology, Proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (LEOS 2005), Australia, p.TuD2 (2005)  Download this Publication (864KB).
  41. T.K. Liang, L.R. Nunes, M. Tsuchiya, H.K. Tsang, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, All-optical Wavelength Conversion in Silicon Wire Waveguides, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2005, United Kingdom, p.We4.P.043 (2005)  Download this Publication (864KB).
  42. P. Sanchis, J. Marti, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, Experimental Results and 3D Analysis of a High Efficiency Coupling Technique for Planar Photonic Crystals, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2005, United Kingdom, p.Tu1.6.4 (2005)  Download this Publication (1.2MB).
  43. R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, G. Roelkens, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, G.R.A. Priem, G. Morthier, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, Silicon-on-insulator based Nano-photonics: Why, How, What for?, Group IV Photonics (invited), Belgium, p.168-170 (2005)  Download this Publication (172KB).
  44. L.R. Nunes, T.K. Liang, M. Tsuchiya, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, Ultrafast Non-inverting Wavelength Conversion by Cross-Absorption Modulation in Silicon Wire Waveguides, Group IV Photonics, Belgium, p.156-158 (2005)  Download this Publication (307KB).
  45. P. Dumon, R. Baets, R. Kappeler, D. Barros, I. McKenzie, D. Doyle, Measured radiation sensitivity of Silica-on-Silicon and Silicon-on-insulator micro-photonic devices for potential space application, Optics and Photonics, Photonics for Space Environments X, 5897, United States, (2005)  Download this Publication (3.4MB).
  46. D. Taillaert, R. Baets, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, B. Luyssaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, Silicon-on-Insulator Platform for Integrated Wavelength-Selective Components, Workshop on Fibres and Optical Passive Components (invited), Italy, (2005)  Download this Publication (1MB).
  47. D. Néel, T. Benyattou, R. Orobtchouk, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, SNOM for the optical characterisation of photonic crystal structures, Workshop on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-VI), Greece, p.C.32 (2005)  Download this Publication (486KB).
  48. T.J. Karle, T.F. Krauss, W. Bogaerts, H. Gersen, R.J.P. Engelen, J.P. Korterik, N.F. van Hulst, L. Kuipers, Slow light, modal dispersion and mini stop bands in photonic crystal waveguides: experiments and modelling, Workshop on Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-VI), Greece, p.B.40 (2005)  Download this Publication (815KB).
  49. P. Sanchis, A. Martinez, J. Garcia, F. Cuesta-Soto, J. Marti, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Experimental demonstration of adiabatic coupling into SOI photonic crystal coupled-cavity waveguides, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference/Photonic Applications, Systems and Technologies Conference (CLEO/QELS 2005), United States, p.CTuDD2 (2005)  Download this Publication (304KB).
  50. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, Wavelength-selective components in SOI photonic wires fabricated with deep UV lithography, Group IV Photonics, Hong Kong, p.WB5 (2004)  Download this Publication (199KB).
  51. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, R. Baets, Cascaded Mach-Zehnder Filters in Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Wires fabricated with deep UV lithography, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2004, Th.(Post-deadline), Sweden, p.24-25 (2004)  Download this Publication (108KB).
  52. B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, P. Sanchis, J. Marti, R. Baets, A Versatile Optical Spot-Size Converter Design, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2004, We(3), Sweden, p.468-469 (2004)  Download this Publication (279KB).
  53. R. Baets, Photonic Crystal Research in IST, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2004 (invited), 5(Symposia), Sweden, p.80-82 (2004)  Download this Publication (75KB).
  54. M. Thorhauge, L.H. Frandsen, P.I. Borel, A. Harpoeth, Y.X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, Novel low-loss 60° bends in photonic crystal waveguides, CLEO/IQEC, United States, p.CWP2 (2004).
  55. R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, Nanophotonic waveguides in SOI by means of deep UV lithography, Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-V) (invited), Japan, p.160 (2004)  Download this Publication (234KB).
  56. B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Compact Photonic Spot-Size Converter, Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-V), Japan, p.193 (2004).
  57. P. Sanchis, J. Garcia, F. Cuesta-Costo, A. Martinez, J. Blasco, J. Marti, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, Experimental demonstration of a high efficiency coupling technique for planar photonic crystal circuits, Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-V), Japan, p.128 (2004).
  58. M. Kristensen, L.H. Frandsen, A. Harpoeth, Y.X. Zhuang, P.I. Borel, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, Large bandwidth 60° bend in photonic crystal waveguides, Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-V), Japan, p.93 (2004).
  59. L.H. Frandsen, P.I. Borel, A. Harpoeth, M. Kristensen, M. Thorhauge, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, Ultra low loss photonic crystal waveguide 3 dB splitter, Photonic and Electromagnetic Crystal Structures (PECS-V), Japan, p.146 (2004).
  60. Y.X. Zhuang, L.H. Frandsen, A. Harpøth, M. Thorhauge, M. Kristensen, P.I. Borel, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Wavelength tuning of photonic crystal waveguides fabricated using 248-nm deep UV lithography , OFC 2004, United States, p.ThR2 (2004).
  61. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Low-loss photonic wires and compact ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator, LEOS Benelux Annual Symposium 2003, Netherlands, (2003)  Download this Publication (314KB).
  62. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, J. Van Campenhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Low-loss, single-mode photonic wires ring resonators in Silicon-on-Insulator, LEOS 2003, 1, United States, p.289-299 (2003)  Download this Publication (151KB).
  63. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Tolerance control for photonic crystal structures fabricated with deep UV lithography, ECOC 2003, 5, Italy, p.46-47 (2003)  Download this Publication (166KB).
  64. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, P. Dumon, D. Taillaert, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, B. Luyssaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Large-scale production techniques for photonic nanostructures, Proc. SPIE (invited), 5225, United States, p.101-112 (2003)  Download this Publication (1.6MB).
  65. R. Baets, P. Bienstman, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, Coupling issues in strongly confined nanophotonic waveguides, ICTON 2003 (invited), Poland, p.191-192 (2003)  Download this Publication (152KB).
  66. T.F. Krauss, R. Wilson, R. Baets, W. Bogaerts, M. Kristensen, P.I. Borel, L.H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, B. Tromborg, A. Lavrinenko, R.M. De La Rue, H. Chong, L. Socci, M. Midrio, D. Gallagher, Photonic Integrated Circuits using Crystal Optics (PICCO), European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (invited), Czech Republic, p.113-117 (2003)  Download this Publication (1.3MB).
  67. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, R. Baets, SOI Photonic Crystal components fabricated with deep UV lithography, PECS-IV, United States, p.40 (2002)  Download this Publication (244KB).
  68. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Photonic Crystal Waveguides in SOI fabricated with deep UV lithography, European Conference on Optical Communication ECOC 2002, Denmark, p.4.4.5 (2002)  Download this Publication (214KB).
  69. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, Large-scale production techniques for photonic nanostructures using excimer laser replication, Integrated Photonics Research (IPR) (invited), Canada, (2002)  Download this Publication (766KB).
  70. R. Baets, Towards nanophotonic integrated circuits: the challenges, Conference on Optoelectronics and Optical Communications (COOC 2002) (invited), 9(1), p.3-4 (2002).
  71. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Fabrication of Ultra-Compact Photonic Structures in Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Using 248 nm Deep UV Lithography, International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) 2002, 2, Poland, p.30-33 (2002)  Download this Publication (1.6MB).
  72. W. Bogaerts, SOI Photonic Crystal Fabrication Using Deep UV, NKT Summer School, Denmark, (2001).
  73. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, M. Maenhoudt, G. Vandenberghe, SOI Photonic Crystal Fabrication Using Deep UV Lithography, PECS III, United Kingdom, (2001)  Download this Publication (778KB).
      National Conferences

    1. S. Selvaraja, R. Baets, D. Van Thourhout, Nanophotonic integrated chip fabricated by CMOS technology, 8th FirW PhD Symposium, Belgium, (2007)  Download this Publication (13KB).
    2. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. Jaenen, S. Beckx, J. Wouters, A nanophotonic 4x4 wavelength router in silicon-on-insulator, 6th UGent-FirW Doctoraatssymposium, Belgium, p.38 (paper nr. 27) (2005)  Download this Publication (435KB).
    3. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, WDM filters in Silicon-on-insulator photonic wires, Doctoraatssymposium Faculteit Toegepaste Wetenschappen, Belgium, (2004)  Download this Publication (485KB).
    4. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology, 1st Flanders Engineering PhD Symposium, Belgium, p.63 (2003)  Download this Publication (301KB).
    5. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. Van Campenhout, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, Nanophotonic waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology, 4th UGent FTW PhD Symposium, Belgium, p.56 (2003)  Download this Publication (301KB).
    6. B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, R. Baets, Compact Photonic Spot-Size Converters, FTW PhD symposium, Belgium, p.57 (2003)  Download this Publication (664KB).
    7. J. Van Campenhout, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, Compact photonic-crystal waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator: design and experimental verification, LEOS Benelux Photonic Crystal Workshop, Belgium, (2002).
    8. W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, D. Taillaert, S. Beckx, R. Baets, Making lots of little holes (Or using CMOS mass fabrication technology to make photonic crystals), LEOS benelux Photonic Crystal Workshop, Belgium, (2002).

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